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Buddhism

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Diana Ge

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Buddhism

Vasubandhu: One of the half-brothers who founded the Yogācāra School, the 2nd patriarch (Jodo Shinshu branch), and one of the most influential figures in the history of Buddhism
Asanga: One of the half-brothers who founded the Yogācāra School
Asvaghosa: One of the four important sages of Indian Buddhism ( the four suns that illuminate the world); a poet best known for “Buddha-Carita,” which is a poem giving a biography of the Buddha Buddha's Beginnings . . . Buddhism Abinav Bharadwaj,
John Coen,
Diana Ge,
Christina Voss,
Afton Yildrim
Period 5 Demographics:
Then and Now 300 - 600 CE Challenges Spread Throughout Asia Present Day Buddhism Early Spread of Buddhism Basic Beliefs Foundations, Beliefs,
Beginnings 1) Dukkha: the truth of suffering
2) Samudaya: the truth of the origin of suffering
3) Nirodha: the truth of the cessation of suffering
4) Magga: the truth of the path to the cessation of suffering Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang (Also known as Hsuan-Tsang) traveled back to India in search of Buddhist texts. He ignored the Chinese imperial ban on leaving the country, and in the end he traveled more than 40,000 miles with a tiger through central Asia. Xuanzang brought a wealth of religious, cultural, and geographic knowledge to China. He is similar to Paul in Christianity. Buddhism originated in northern India and then spread to the Mauryan Empire, which:
Covered almost all of the Indian subcontinent
Was ruled by King Ashoka from 268-235 BC
He converted his whole kingdom to Buddhism and sent missionaries beyond his borders to spread the religion even further
Mahendra, his son, introduced Theravada Buddhism to Sri Lanka in 220 BCE
The religion also traveled to Burma and Thailand At around 563 BCE, the prince Siddhārtha Gautama was born into a royal family. A holy man predicted that he would become a great king, military leader, or a religious prophet.

His father, the king Suddhodana, kept him in the palace in an attempt to shield him from the poverty and miseries of the outside world. One day . . . In 534 BCE, at the age of 29, Prince Siddhārtha ventured out of the palace and witnessed four sights:
An elderly man
A sick man
A dead corpse
An ascetic
He was overwhelmed by the suffering
he saw and fled the kingdom the next day. He then joined a group of wandering
ascetics and made it his goal to find an
end to human suffering. The prince and five companions began to wander India for years, engaging in strict asceticism and renouncing worldly pleasures. He let his body waste by fasting, and endured much physical pain and suffering.

However, he later realized that a practicing a balanced life was was better than extremism. This was known as the Middle Path, which avoided extremes of self-denial and self-indulgence. His followers left him because they thought that he had become undisciplined.

In 528BCE, Siddhārtha sat under the Bodhi tree. After days of meditation, he attained enlightenment, or spiritual knowledge and insight, at the age of 35. He thus became known as Buddha, or the "Awakened One". Buddhism vs. Christianity Buddhism vs. Hinduism ". . . the four deva kings and others kept the four doors (of the hall), so that (even) the king, his father, could not enter; where Buddha sat under a nyagrodha tree, which is still standing, with his face to the east . . . "
—Chapter XXII of Foguoji Once he did so, he became aware of a continuous cycle of life, death, and rebirth. He also realized that the only way to break this cycle and escape suffering was through enlightenment and nirvana, a transcendent state where there is no desire or selfishness.

The Buddha set out to teach, and the ascetics who had left with him became his disciples. They formed the first group of Buddhist monks, the Sangha.

For the remainder of his life, he traveled and spread his teachings, and the religion expanded exponentially. THE FOUR
NOBLE TRUTHS: Dukkha In Buddhism, suffering has three forms:
1) Old age
2) Sickness
3) Death
These are the three things that Buddha saw when he first ventured out of his palace.

Desire is also described as suffering, so people are always suffering because fulfillment does not last forever. Samudaya Desire comes in three forms known as the three roots of evil:
Greed and desire, represented by a rooster
Ignorance, represented by a pig
Hatred and destructive urges, by a snake Nirodha If desire is controlled, then the suffering that it causes can be eliminated. Nirvana, which literally means "extinguishing", can be achieved when all three roots of evil are curbed. Magga This is the path used in order to achieve nirvana, known as the Noble Eightfold Path or Middle Way. It consists of eight steps that are separated into three groups: W I S D O M :
1) Right Understanding: Accepting and following the teachings of Buddha
2) Right Intention: The promise and commitment to having the right mindset and attitude E T H I C S :
3) Right Speech: Do not gossip, speak harshly, or lie
4) Right Action: Do not steal, overindulge, or kill; behave correctly and peacefully
5) Right Livelihood: Do not make a living doing harmful things such as stealing, exploiting, trading weapons, or cheating M E D I T A T I O N :
6) Right Effort: Get rid of the evil within yourself and keep it from coming back in the future
7) Right Mindfulness: Be aware of your sensations, feelings, body, actions, and states of mind
8) Right Concentration: Develop the concentration necessary to achieve this awareness A release from samsara, the cycle of rebirth and death, it is the highest point of existence in Buddhist belief and a state where suffering does not exist.

Someone who has achieved Nirvana is called an arhat. Once someone has attained nirvana and is subsequently no longer affected by the three bad roots, he or she is no longer subject to the laws of karma.

In Buddha's teachings, it was also said that upon death, one would be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, he never described what happened after liberation. Nirvana Karma is the motivation to live a moral life, as it is the ethical aspect of the concept of rebirth.
Bad actions can affect you in your next life, your future lives, or even your current life
All future lives will be formed by your current actions, and your current life was formed because of past actions ". . . between two trees, on the bank of the Nairanjana river, is the place where the World-honoured one, with his head to the north, attained to pari-nirvana (and died) . . ."
—Chapter XXIV of Foguoji, documenting Buddha's achievement of Nirvana "Great Heap was the name of a wicked demon, who was converted by Buddha, and men subsequently at this place reared a vihara. When it was being made over to an Arhat by pouring water on his hands . . ."
—Chapter XVII of Foguoji, documenting the conversion of a demon into an arhat by Buddha Karma There are two kinds of karma:
Unwholesome: Bad karma caused by the three bad roots of greed, hatred and delusion
Wholesome: Good karma caused by unselfishness, hatelessness, and undeludedness

There are four ways that karma functions:
Regenerative: Functions at rebirth and during life
Supportive: Assists karma that has already been created
Counteractive: Suppresses the results of karma
Destructive: Destroys weaker karma Additionally, there is not only individual karma, but also a universal level of karma that can affect large groups of people and even nations.
The ultimate goal of karma is to achieve nirvana. Later Life and Legacy Nāgārjuna: The most important philosopher after Buddha, founded school of Mahayana Buddhism. The 2nd century B.C.E. was even known as the age of the philosopher Nāgārjuna.

Ananda: Cousin of the Buddha, one of his primary disciples. He memorized the teachings and recited and spread them. A Mahayana Buddhist.

Mahākāśyapa: One of the principal disciples of Buddha, who also directed the first council of Mahayana Buddhists.

Mahayana Buddhists spread teachings to:
Central Asia and China around the 1st century CE
Kumarajiva: One of the Buddhist scholars and missionaries. He translated over 100 texts to the Chinese language, and was responsible for the Chinese branch of the Madhyamika (a Buddhist school)
The earliest record of Buddhism in China is in 65 CE when Liu Ying, King of Chu, is documented as following certain Buddhist rituals
Buddhism is officially established in China in 68 CE whe the White Horse temple is constructed
India by the 2nd century CE
Vasubandhu: One of the half-brothers who founded the Yogācāra School, the 2nd patriarch (Jodo Shinshu branch), and one of the most influential figures in the history of Buddhism
Asanga: One of the half-brothers who founded the Yogācāra School
Asvaghosa: One of the four important sages of Indian Buddhism ( the four suns that illuminate the world); a poet best known for “Buddha-Carita,” which is a poem giving a biography of the Buddha
Korea in the 4th century CE
Japan by 552 CE
Shotoku Taishi (574-622 CE): A regent who supported the development of Buddhism in Japan c. 600 CE
Tibet by the 7th century CE C O N N E C T I O N S :
The goal of both is to make the world a better and more stable place
Have religious texts:
Buddhism: Sutras
Christianity: the Bible
Had one main person spread the religion to many different areas
Buddhism: Xuanzang
Christianity: Paul
Christians must first accept accept Jesus as their savior, and Buddhists must first accept Buddha's teachings to begin the steps to enlightenment
The holy Trinity vs. the three roots of evil
This is a contrast within a similarity: In Christianity the Trinity is good, while in Buddhism the trinity is bad C O N T R A S T S :
There is only one God in Christianity, while in Buddhism there is no real god
Buddhists are following Buddha to achieve enlightenment
In Christianity there is a heaven and hell, but in Buddhism there is a cycle of rebirth
Christians are working to achieve a place in heaven, while Buddhists are working towards enlightenment and a peaceful, evil-ridden mind C O N N E C T I O N S :
Have religious texts:
Buddhism: Sutras
Hinduism: Vedas
Believe in the concept of liberation from the cycle of birth and death:
Buddhism: Nirvana
Hinduism: Moksha
Practice puja, or prayer
Cremate their dead C O N T R A S T S :
Hinduism has deities that are thought of as extensions of the one ultimate reality, Brahman
Buddhism was founded by the Buddha, while Hinduism does not have a particular founder As time progressed, so did the people's view of the Buddha. Originally, the Buddha was seen as a semi-divine person rather than a god. Today, many people view Buddha as more godly than when the religion started. Xuanzang Though Buddha, also known as Sakyamuni, did travel and teach, he did not impose ideas on people. He allowed others to follow his teachings without disconnecting from their own traditions.

At age 34, he traveled to the Varanasi Deer Park to teach the Dharma, the principle of cosmic order, to his former companions. Until his death in 483 BCE at the age of 80, Buddha traveled far and wide, teaching Dharma, attracting followers, and establishing a religious order of monks. Buddha died just outside Kusinagara, India. After his cremation, his remains were distributed and preserved under stupas, or dome-shaped monuments.

Three months after Buddha's death, the first Buddhist council met. In 383 BCE, the second council took place in Vaishali, India, and the third was held by King Ashoka in 250 BCE.

Sangha, the monastic order of monks, is still a vital piece of Buddhism today. It includes four entities—monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen. The laity, the Buddhists not a part of the clergy, maintain the monks' monastic foundations with gifts. In return, they receive the fundamental teachings of the Buddha. Mahayana Buddhists originated in India and spread teachings to:
Central Asia and China around the 1st century CE
Korea in the 4th century CE
Japan by 552 CE
Tibet by the 7th century CE

Nāgārjuna: The most important philosopher after Buddha, he founded the school of Mahayana Buddhism
The 2nd century BCE was even known as the age of the philosopher Nāgārjuna.

Ananda: The cousin of the Buddha and one of his primary disciples
A Mahayan Buddhist, he memorized Buddha's teachings in order to recite and spread them

Mahākāśyapa: One of the principal disciples of Buddha who also directed the first council of the Mahayana Buddhists China "The travellers went on to the south-west for fifteen days (at the foot of the mountains, and) following the course of their range. The way was difficult and rugged, (running along) a bank exceedingly precipitous, which rose up there, a hill-like wall of rock, 10,000 cubits from the base. When one approaches the edge of it, his eyes become unsteady; and if he wished to go forward in the same
direction, there was no place on which he could place his foot; and beneath where the waters of the river called the Indus."

-Chapter VII from Foguoji. Documents the first time Buddhism crosses the Indus and heads to the East. "After crossing the river, (the travellers) immediately came to the kingdom of Woo-chang, which is indeed (a part) of North India. The people all use the language of Central India, "Central India" being what we should call the "Middle Kingdom." The food and clothes of the common people are the same as in that Central Kingdom. The Law of Buddha is very (flourishing in Woo-chang)."

-Chapter VIII from Foguoji. Documents the first town encountered after crossing the Indus River. India Japan Buddhism spread to Japan, was adapted, and is currently a major religion there.
Shotoku Taishi (574-622 CE): A regent who supported the development of Buddhism in Japan c. 600 CE 2nd-3rd Century CE Tang Dynasty - 618-907 CE Emperor Wu of Han received two golden Buddha statues in 120 BCE
The earliest record of Buddhism in China is from 65 CE
Liu Ying, Prince of Chu, was documented as following certain Buddhist rituals
In 68 CE, Buddhism was officially established in China when the White Horse Temple was constructed
Kumarajiva (334 CE-413 CE) was a Buddhist scholar and missionary who translated over 100 texts to the Chinese language
He was responsible for the Chinese branch of the Madhyamika, a Buddhist school
In 495 CE the Shaolin temple was built, the best known Mahayana Buddhist monastery in the world
The Tang (T'sang) Dynasty (618-907 CE) brought around the Golden Age of Chinese Buddhism One of the great challenges Buddhism faced was persecution. During Emperor Wu's rule from 424-451 CE Buddhists were heavily persecuted, due to struggles between religious vs. government power The Dhammapada The Dhammapada (500-600 CE) is a collection of 423 verses attributed to the Buddha. All verses advise the reader to live a moral and virtuous life. The Dhammapada is also the most important religious text in Theravada Buddhism "It is good to tame the mind, which is difficult to hold in and flighty, rushing wherever it listeth; a tamed mind brings happiness."

-From Chapter III of Dhammapada on Thought "Earnestness is the path of immortality (Nirvâna), thoughtlessness the path of death. Those who are in earnest do not die, those who are thoughtless are as if dead already."

-Chapter II of Dhammapada on Earnestness "If a man commits a sin, let him not do it again; let him not delight in sin: the accumulation of evil is painful.

If a man does what is good, let him do it again; let him delight in it: the accumulation of good is delightful."

-Chapter IX of Dhammapada on Good and Evil Dhamekh Stupa at Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh, India
Built during Emperor Asoka’s reign in the 3rd century BCE and constructed on the site where Buddha preached his first sermon "Sincerely reverence the three treasures. The three treasures: the Buddha, the Law, and the Priesthood"
-Constitution of Ancient Japan 604 CE 425 CE Buddhism reaches Sumatra The Wheel of Dharma - The eight spokes represent the Eightfold Path How did it gain traction and support? One of the main reasons why Buddhism was adapted by so many people was because of its universal nature. It appealed to all groups of people. Although today, followers of Buddhism do not actively seek to convert others, such as in Christianity, the religion was continuously spread in its early stages.
[see previous map] Communism's effect... In recent times, the political impact of Communism has caused the religion to suffer greatly.
Many Communist countries' governments have worked to undermine Buddhist influence and power, such as those of Tibet, Vietnam, Cambodia, China, and Laos. Tibetan Buddhists have largely been persecuted by China, which today continues its struggles with Tibet. Monks and nuns have reportedly been tortured and killed by the Chinese military, with monasteries destroyed. Communist Countries... Buddhism is practiced still in many Communist countries, even though followers have reportedly been imprisoned and persecuted by the government, both historically and presently, such as in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, North Korea, and Tibet. Late 6th Century Vinaya Buddhist Text, 415 or 427 CE TIBET First half of the 3rd Century A major event in the effect of Communism on religion was during the Vietnam War, where in Southeast Asian countries whoa whoahhh not done here
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