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Cell Signaling and Disease Project-Alzheimer's Disease

AP Biology Chapter 11 Project Makayla Eckardt and Catina Richter

Makayla Eckardt

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Cell Signaling and Disease Project-Alzheimer's Disease

Basics of Signal
Transduction Specifics of Signal
Transduction Cell Signaling and Alzheimer's Disease Catina Richter and Makayla Eckardt Treatment Currently, there is no treatment that will stop or reverse the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. However, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of three drugs to attempt to slow the progression of the disease. These drugs work to maintain levels of critical message-sending chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Statistics It is the most common cause of dementia in people over 65.
As many as 4 million Americans currently suffer from AD, and as the U.S. population ages that number is expected to rise.
Some 10% of people over the age of 65 are afflicted with AD, of those age 85 or older the incidence increases to 50% Alzheimer's Disease So where did we get all this info? Progressive mental deterioration occurring in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain. Works Cited "Alzheimer Disease." Alzheimer's Disease. Genetics Home Reference, 17 Jan. 2013. Web. 20

"Alzheimer Disease: How Is It Inherited?" Alzheimer Disease: How Is It Inherited? DNA Learning
Center, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Fact Sheet." National Institute on Aging. National Institute on Aging,
June 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Alzheimer's Disease Signaling Pathway." Alzheimer's Disease Signaling Pathway. N.p., n.d. Web. 20
Jan. 2013.

Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. AP* Edition AP Biology. 8th ed. San Franscisco: Pearson,
2008. Print. Stages of Signaling Transduction Pathway 1. Reception: A cell detects a singaling moleculre from the outside of the cell. A signal is detected when the chemical signal (also known as a ligand) binds to the receptor protein on the surface of the cell or inside the cell. 2. Transduction: When the signaling molecule bind the receptor it changes the receptor proteins in some way. This change initiates the process of transduction. Signal transduction is usually a pathway of several steps. 3. Response: Finally, the signal triggers a specific cellular response. Local and Long Distance Signaling Local Long Distance In animals, local signaling can occur through direct contact through cell junctions or when two cells are close together using local regulators. Animal cells secrete hormones that are dispersed through the body through the circulatory system to the target cell. Cell Response to Signal Reception Regulate protein synthesis Signal growth factors such as mRNA Regulate the activity of proteins Affect the overall cell shape Ligand The ligand often alters the shape of the larger molecule (receptor protein) which allows it to interact with various other molecules that allows further molecular events to occur. A ligand is a molecule that binds to another, most often a larger one, to create a chain reaction. Normal G Protein Function:
The G Protein receptor waits for a ligand to connect and activate to it, which causes the signal to be amplified through the cell to the target to create a molecular reaction for the cell.

Problem of Alzheimer's Disease:
The G- Protein and the receptors all work perfectly fine. However, neurotransmitters (the ligand) deteriorate before they can reach the G-Protein to activate the rest of the cell processes. Many of these reasons are unknown and being researched. Protein Kinase A protein kinase is a general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein. Protein kinase cascade works when the signal is transmitted by a cascade of protein phosphorylations. Each shape change in the signal results from added phosphate groups changing a protein from inactive to active. Cyclic AMP Cyclic AMP is a second messenger that transmits the signal from the plasma membrane to the metabolic machinery in the cytoplasm. cAMP will broadcast the message from the plasma membrane through the cytoplasm to allow the transduction to occur to the target molecular reaction. Alzheimer's Disease Signaling Pathways Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease
Memory loss
Difficulty with reasoned thought Cognitive Symptoms: Behavioral Symptoms: Agitation/Anxiety
Wandering Familial Alzheimer's disease is caused by any one of a number of different single-gene mutations on chromosomes 21, 14, and 1 for early onset and on chromosome 19 for late onset. Each of these mutations causes abnormal proteins to be formed. Mutations on chromosome 21 cause the formation of abnormal amyloid precursor protein (APP). A mutation on chromosome 14 causes abnormal presenilin 1 to be made, and a mutation on chromosome 1 leads to abnormal presenilin 2.-early onset Cause of Disease Reason for Disease The brains of people with Alzheimer disease (AD) exhibit two significantly different structures: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Both the plaques and tangles consist mostly of protein and are thought to interfere with brain function and contribute to the dementia that is a hallmark of AD. Means of Inheritance Alzheimer's disease is passed genetically through the passing of chromosomes in conception. The disease is autosomal and recessive as people of both genders can inherit the disease. Bye Bye! Please enjoy this virtual sandwhich :) SHE'S DEAD. IT'S LUCY
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