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Grasslands

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by

Ross Feitlinger

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of Grasslands

Animals in the Grassland
some of the largest animals on earth
have to survive food shortages and droughts
fast runners and able to camouflage with their surroundings due to the lack of hiding places
graze for food
80 species of animals
300 species of birds
few animals can endure grassland conditions
examples: prairie dogs, cheetahs, bison, armadillos, coyotes, elephants, tigers, lions, crocodiles, and many more!

Here is an example of a grassland.
Fires
grow but also threaten the biome
plants have roots that will regrow after a wild fire
Locations of Grasslands
found on every continent except for the poles
Africa, Asia, Australia, South America, Europe, North America ( Midwest Rocky Mountains)
both coastal and inland, although more commonly inland
middle latitudes between 65˚N and 30˚S
wide range of latitudes because of the many types of grasslands
roughly 1/4 of the world's landmass
Today, many farmers use grasslands as grazing land for cattle. Grasslands may be vast, but that doesn't mean they are renewable.

GRASSLANDS AND SAVANNAS
By Ashley and Gigi
Lion
Giraffe
Elephant
Prairie Dogs
Tiger
Lion
Gazelle
Gazelle
Cheetah chasing Zebras
Prairie Dog
Rhinoceros
Grassland climates have extreme hot and cold tempatures.
Red Grass
Climate
hot summers and cold winters
temperature ranges from -40˚ f (40˚c) to 110˚ f (43˚c)
large temperature range due to the many locations of the grassland biome
more precipitation in summer than winter

temperate grasslands
get about 25-87.5 cm (10-35 in) of precipitation
tropical or subtropical

grasslands
receive 62.5-165.5 cm (25-65 in) of precipitation
Vegetation
little vegetation in the prairies
few trees except along small streams where there are cracks deep in the soil
plants arrive when its rainy, but get swept out during the dry season when there are fires
some flowers include milkweed, goldenrods, asters, and the blazingstar
not a lot of shrubs
poison ivy found at the edge of a prairie

Trees
not many trees
the 2 major trees are palms and acacias
few wild fruit trees
trees are spread throughout grasslands
never bunches of trees in 1 area
umbrella-like acacias are very typical in African savanna
provide food and shade for animals
birds and other animals eat off the wild fruit trees

Health Issues in the Grassland
many diseases
common because animals kill other animals and the bodies are left to rot
no sewage drains underground
sewage runs by houses and contaminates the environment where people live

Here are some animals
Types of Trees
common tree is the white Acacia tree with big branches that animals use for shade
most of the trees in the grasslands are deciduous
the Candlebra, Gum, Acacia, Jarrah, Baobob, Manketii, and Jackalberry trees are also found in the prairies
the growing season begins when the temperature reaches 50˚f
Plants
plants that endure the arid climate of a grassland must be able to conserve water
trees do this with their knotty branches, thick bark, and considerable roots like the Baobob Tree
grasses and shrubs that survive are distinguished by having the ability reduce evaporation with layers of wax on their leaves or with vast root systems that trap large amounts of water
organisms that have the ability to do this are called xerophytic
As of today there are as few as 32,000 lions
in the African savanna.
Throughout the dry season temperatures fluctuate from scorching to freezing. During the wet season temperatures tend to consistently stay warm.


Lion
Animals in the savannas are constantly being threatened by hunting and poaching. Bison are nearly extinct.
kangaroo paw
Some wild grasses, plants, herbs, and bushes that grow include:
Bermuda grass
Elephant grass
Eucalyptus
Whistling Thorn
Kangaroo Paw
Umbrella Thorn
River Bushville
many non-woody plants
Here is a fun fact: Giant Eland the antelope lives in Africa. She is the largest antelope, weighing over 1,000 kg. She is 1.8 meters tall and can run over 70 kmph. She can easily jump over 1.5 meters in the air.
Antelope
Grasshopper
Kopjes are cliffs or stony hills found in a savanna.
FAFAFAFA
Lakes and Ponds
large, deep bodies of water
surrounded by grassland
most ponds have floating vegetation
trees and shrubs often line the banks
due to lack of precipitation, ponds not very common

Precipitation
varies due to the large range of location
in temperate grasslands
it can snow
March-May is the rainy season
June-February is the dry season
Maasai People
live on a savanna in Kenya
protect their home from farmers and cattle
follow old traditions of Africa
has been here for hundreds of years
have always lived in the grassland and show no sign of moving
were once known as warriors
make their houses out of branches, twigs, grass and mud
women build the houses and get water
main food is milk
raise animals such as sheep and goats for meat
the grasslands meet the needs of the Maasai people so they continue to live there
Humans
had to build shelter to survive
had to adapt to environment
grasslands are not human's natural habitat
grasslands are not densely populated
Here is a fun fact: Big bluestrem grass is the tallest grass found on tall grass prairies. It can grow to be 11 feet tall! Another name for the big Bluestem is Turkeyfeet because of the shape of the seed heads.
Common Teasel
Dog Bane
Iron Weed
Joe Pye Weed
Prairies (North America)
generally humid
covered with tall grasses
few trees
trees would be found on hills or in more moist locations near springs or ponds
rich soil
farmers have used prairies for centuries
animals are being driven out by hunters
tall grass
prairies have grass that can grow as tall as 152cm; about 80cm of rain per year
mixed grass
prairies have grass that can grow 60-90 cm tall; average of 40-60 cm of rain per year
short grass
prairies have no taller than knee-high grasses; less than 15 cm of rain fall per year
Steppe (Asia)
very little moisture
short grass
plants store water
animal life is minimized to grazing and burrowing animals
semi-arid climate
threatened by over grazing
Savanna (Africa)
warm and dry climate
common droughts
organisms can store water and become dormant for droughts
tropical savanna
has lots of plant and animal life
rhinos and elephants are endangered due to hunting and poaching
wild fires are common
more fires where people live
Blazing Star
Yellow Eyed Grass
Queen Ann's Lace
Grasslands
home to many endangered animals and rare plants that are important for the world to maintain
cover large amounts of earth
lots of non touched plants keep air clean and fresh
Grasslands cover vast amounts of land with rolling hills, scattered trees and bushes, and many grasses inhabiting some of the worlds largest animals.
Surrounding Biomes
boreal forest
deciduous forest
desert
rainforest
Sites
http://www.ducksters.com/science/ecosystems/world_biomes.php

http://www.iplay.com.br/Imagens/Divertidas/0lde/Leopardo_Perseguindo_Zebras_Nas_ Savanas_Africanas

http://www.fantom-xp.com/wp_15__Gazelle_-_antelope_(savannas_of_Africa).html

http://room42.wikispaces.com/Savanna+Vegetation

http://www.taringa.net/posts/imagenes/12529937/Animales-en-calidad-HD.html

http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/12/06/on-dwindling-savannas-lions-at-risk/

http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/srs/

http://worldwildlife.org/species/savanna-elephant

http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/ecoregions/sudanian_savannas.cfm

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/grasslands.htm

http://www.nagelphotography.com/img/s2/v4/p68618089-3.jpg

http://www.defenders.org/grasslands/temperate-grasslands

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/grasslands_climate_page.htm

http://www.worldbiomes.com/biomes_grassland.htm

http://www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/biomegrass.htm

http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/grass.htm

http://www.americanprairie.org/aboutapf/

http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec18/lec18.htm

http://biology.about.com/od/landbiomes/a/aa041706a.htm

http://www.mathsisfun.com/temperature-conversion.html

http://www.panoramio.com/photo/388229

http://parsha.blogspot.com/2011/06/well-of-miriam-miraculously-growing.html

http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/157211/

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Pantanal,_south-central_South_America_5170.jpg/300px-Pantanal,_south-central_South_America_5170.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flooded_grasslands_and_savannas&h=225&w=300&sz=18&tbnid=Y3WEsM0OFfw-NM:&tbnh=95&tbnw=127&zoom=1&usg=___A2Io3dmY3deoCSNVcjeVM7Ca4E=&docid=s8A1-C-DINiIYM&sa=X&ei=T8KEUr3dEbWr4AONk4DIBA&ved=0CDUQ9QEwAg

http://www.thegrazingmind.com/2010/06/02/i-like-dirt-dirt-dont-hurt/
Threats to the Biome
fire
drought
flooding
farmers with cattle
excessive grazing
hunting and poaching
Why Few Trees?
animals graze on the few saplings growing
although many plants grow during the rainy season a good number of them are wiped out with fires that come during the dry season
need certain qualities to survive though conditions
little precipitation
1000 year old Baobob Tree
Acacia Tree
Floods
common in rainy season
water floods easily because of the topography
The sky always seems big in the grassland because there is little obstruction.
The soil is very rich in the grasslands.
Growing Plants
as we know from the plant experiment soil is not the most important element for a plant to grow
water is the most important element
grasslands have good soil but not that much precipitation
therefor not many plants can survive
Books
Ecology and the Environment Interactive Science
A Savanna Food Chain
Living in the Environment
Ecology for Every Kid

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