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Civil Rights

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Max Xu

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Civil Rights

The Amendments
Court Cases
13th Amendment

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

14th Amendment
This states that if you are or were born in America you have the right to an automatic U.S. citizenship. This was important to the African Americans.
No state can change the, “privileges or immunities,” of a citizen.
No one can take away a person’s right to life, liberty, or property with, “due process of law.”
Everyone is equal by law.
African American Slaves were most benefited by this amendment because it gave them citizenship and almost equal rights as the Whites.
Passed on June 13, 1866.
Ratified on July 9, 1868.








15th Amendment
“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”

Thurgood Marshall
Childhood
MLK
- Born January 15th, 1929
- Died April 4 1968
- Executive member of the NAACP
- In early December of 1955, he led a bus boycott for 382 days
- Arrested, had his home bombed, and subjected to abuse due to the boycott
- Elected president of Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957
- Led massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama that started on April 3, 1963 and read “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”
- On August 28, 1963, MLK delivered his “I have a Dream Speech” in Washington D.C.
- Over 250,000 civil rights supporters were there when MLK delivered that speech
- It was a defining moment of the Civil Rights Movement in America
- MLK was the youngest person to receive a Nobel Peace Prize at 35
- When notified, he decided to all the prize money to support the Civil Rights movement
- In Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4th, 1968, MLK was assassinated on his motel balcony before leading a protest with striking garbage workers
Rosa Parks
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Background info on Homer Adolph Plessy
Was one eight African American
grandmother was from Africa
Was on a train and sat in the “whites only” section
Was ejected and jailed
Background Info on John Howard Ferguson
Was a judge
Was the judge for Plessy first trial
Background Information on Case
Case was on April 13, 1896
Plessy was jailed for sitting in the “Whites only” section on a train
At his first trial for his offense, the judge was Ferguson
He was found guilty for his crime
His filed a petition against the judge about segregation and how it was against the 13 and 14 amendments
He again lost
Constitutional issues
The fourteenth amendment issue was that the fourteenth amendment says that there should be absolute equality between the races
Plessy was arguing that the law that separated african americans and whites was against the 14th amendment
The court said that the 14th amendment was to create equality between the 2 races and it was not about social rights
The thirteenth amendment said that there was no more slavery so it did not relate to the case
Court’s Decision
Ferguson won
Impact on the Present
This case just gave a “constitutional nod” for most of the 20th century
Changed after the Brown vs BOE case where segregation was demolished


- These case regards racial segregation in a school in Topeka, Kansas
- One of the cases were 13 parents from Topeka who wanted the school to reverse its policy of racial segregation.
- The parents attempted to enroll their children at a school but they were all refused and redirected to segregated schools
- Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund handled these cases
- The Supreme Court heard the cases in 1953
- They combined 5 cases as heard by the Supreme Court
- The Supreme Court unanimously deemed the cases unconstitutional in violation of the 14th amendment
- This also overthrew the previous decision in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case
- The case began the integration of the African Americans and the Whites starting at public schools
Dred Scott vs Sanford
Dred Scott
Groups
KKK
The KKK was founded on 1865, in Pulaski, Tennessee by confederate generals. The organization did many acts of terror throughout time to show white supremacy. During the 1960s, The KKK appeared to oppose the granting of civil rights to black people. The KKK were responsible for 1963 bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, 1964 murder of civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, in Mississippi, and the assassination NAACP organizer Medgar Evers.


The Black Panthers
Thurgood Marshall was born on July 2 1908 in Baltimore,Maryland
He was a very Bright Child in school. His parents were were dedicated for their child’s success .
He studied hard and always had good grades.
Every time Thurgood got in trouble at school he was to remember parts of the constitution.
Thurgood had one brother who was older than him.
He also went to the same college that his brother attended.
Thurgood followed his brother, William Aubrey Marshall, to the historically black Lincoln University in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  
CONNECTION TO CIVIL RIGHTS

In 1930, he applied to the University of Maryland Law School, but was denied admission because he was Black. His career was declined because of his color. He was later a judge in many courts around the country.

He helped in many ways to get the civil rights movement moving and help them win at the end. He helped by being judge.

He was almost like an “undercover” agent and made sure all of the unfair acts that the white judges were performing were taken care of.

He won Supreme Court victories breaking the color line in housing, transportation and voting, all of which overturned the 'Separate-but-Equal' apartheid of American life in the first half of the century.

And he rejected Malcolm X's talk of violent revolution and a separate black nation as racist craziness in a multi-racial society.


ACHIEVEMENTS
He has achieved his victory and his job as a black judge to discipline all the white judges on how to be fair.

Before he became a judge he was a lawyer he helped the movement by winning the Brown V.S. Board of ed. case.

Brown V.S. Board of Education case. He went against a hard opponent to beat.The Black students were very happy regarding the outcome of Brown vs BOE

He redeemed his family’s reputation as fighting for rights.(like his Grandfather has done)

He has achieved the accomplishment of working hard and being the first black judge in the supreme court.

Founding:

The black panthers were founded in California 1996.

Played a short but important role to the civil rights movement.

In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, against the white pop.

They were community based actions to take action.

A party whose agenda was the revolutionary establishment of real economic,
social, and political equality across gender and color lines.

Malcolm X was the root for the idea of the Black Panthers.




Actions:

The Black Panther Party had four desires equality in education, housing, employment and civil rights.

There are ten points that make the foundation of the Black Panthers.

The panthers had performed murders and other crimes just so they can escalate.

They also organized programs to promote the amount of supporters.

For the uncontrollable parties the FB under J. Edgar Hoover, begins a program called COINTELPRO
(counterintelligence program) .


Ran by the Ten point
system
1.WE WANT FREEDOM. WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES.
2.WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE.
3.WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALISTS OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES.
4.WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS.
5.WE WANT DECENT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE THAT EXPOSES THE TRUE NATURE OF THIS DECADENT AMERICAN SOCIETY. WE WANT EDUCATION THAT TEACHES US OUR TRUE HISTORY AND OUR ROLE IN THE PRESENT-DAY SOCIETY.
The Black Panthers
6.
WE WANT COMPLETELY FREE HEALTH CARE FOR All BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE.
7.WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE, OTHER PEOPLE OF COLOR, All OPPRESSED PEOPLE INSIDE THE UNITED STATES.
8.WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO ALL WARS OF AGGRESSION.
9.WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE NOW HELD IN U. S. FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND MILITARY PRISONS AND JAILS. WE WANT TRIALS BY A JURY OF PEERS FOR All PERSONS CHARGED WITH SO-CALLED CRIMES UNDER THE LAWS OF THIS COUNTRY.
10.WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE, PEACE AND PEOPLE'S COMMUNITY CONTROL OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY.
Rosa Parks
Background Info
Born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama
Went to a segregated school
Married Raymond Parks when she was 19
He was a member of the NAACP
Joined the NAACP in 1943
Connection to Civil Rights
On December 1st, 1955, while on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her seat to a white passenger
She was arrested for her refusal
Was later that night released on bail
On the day of Rosa trial, December 5, 1955, there was a bus boycott from african americans
This was in protest of her trial
The bus boycott was huge
40,000 african americans didn't ride the buses that day
Her arrest triggered many protest like the bus one
Her refusal was very brave and inspiring
Achievements
Her arrest triggered the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Started “The Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development”
Published the books “Rosa Parks: My Story”and “Quiet Strength”
Civil Rights
Civil Rights Activists
NAACP
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
This law meant that all slavery was abolished in all of the United States.
Slavery was a big thing for the people in the South.
The Emancipation Proclamation was passed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 , which ended slavery only in the rebel states. The 13th Amendment officially banned slavery in the U.S.
The main states that had slaves were the southern/rebel states that included: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.
This law was passed on January 31, 1865.
This law was ratified on December 6, 1865.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Founding
February 12, 1909

John Ferguson
Homer Plessy
Her Book, Rosa Parks my Story
Rosa Parks
Emmett Till
Background Info
Born on July 25, 1941
Grew up in middle class African American neighborhood in Chicago
Went to Mississippi to visit his Uncle
Was not used to that much racism
Info about death
Killed in Money, Mississippi
14 at death
Killed on August 28, 1955
A few days before his death, he was at the local market, Bryant’s Grocery and Meat Market and flirted with the wife of the store owner, Carolyn Bryant
Mr. Bryant and his half brother John Milam grabbed Emmett in the middle of the night and put him in the back of their pick up truck
They badly beat him and shot him in the head
His body was found in the Tallahatchie River
Connection to Civil Right
Emmett Till’s uncle took the stand at the trial and identified the killers
This was very rare for an African American and it was very brave for him to do
The killers had tons of evidence against them
the all-white, all-male jury found the men not guilty
this showed the racist
Emmett Till
14th Amendment
Sections 1 & 2
Emmett Till before his death
Emmett Till after his death
SECTION 1.

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SECTION 2.

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.
14th Amendment
Sections 3,4,& 5
SECTION 3.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

SECTION 4.

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

SECTION 5.

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
This law gave African Americans the right to vote.
All Americans had the right to vote no matter race, color, or status.
No vote can be denied.
Passed on March 30, 1870.
Ratified on February 3, 1870.

Naacp is the nations oldest, largest, and most widely knows grassroots-based civil rights organization.
Purpose
"To ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination."

Equality for all races
Maya Angelou
Timeline
1928; April 4th, Maya is born
1941; Maya goes to high school to study dance and drama.
1958; Maya begins writing poetry and joins the Writers Guild
1959; Civil rights movement begins, Maya becomes coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Council.
1960: Moves to Africa to follow civil rights activists and stays for a few years working as an editor
1964; Maya comes back to America in hopes of working with Malcolm X but he was assassinated a few years later. After the assassination Maya works with MLK to promote the southern christian leadership conference.
1970; Publishes "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings"
1993; Maya recites "On The Pulse of Morning" at President Bill Clinton's inauguration
2006; wins the NAACP award
13th Amendment

15th Amendment
Fun Fact: Forrest Gump, the Oscar wining movie, had its main character (Forrest Gump) named after Nathan Befford Forrest, a KKK member
By: Sara Weisblatt, Nate Tran, Donalie Black, Kaushik Perkari, and Max Xu
After the Emancipation Proclamation was passed in 1863, the 13th Amendment was passed in 1865 to abolish all slavery.
The 15th Amendment was passed, and allowed all African Americans to vote.
They wore these outfits
Brown vs Board of Ed
Civil Rights Impact
Maya Angelou
While traveling abroad in Ghana Maya met Malcolm X and planned on helping him with the new Organization of African-American Unity- but Malcolm X died and the organization didn't last.
After Malcolm X's death Maya became associated with MLK and he asked her to serve as the Northern Coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
In 2006 she won the NAACP award. She has also won 3 Grammy's, the Presidential Medal of Arts and the Presidential Medal of Freedom throughout her life
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Mission;
"In the spirit of Martin Luther King,Jr., the Southern Christian Leadership Conference is renewing its commitment to bring about the promise of ‘one nation, under God, INDIVISIBLE’ together with the commitment to activate the ‘strength to love’ within the community of humankind."
History;
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was fonded in 1957 as a result of the bus boycott in 1955-56 and Martin Luther King Jr. became their president. They issued a document that declared civil rights were essential to peace and they will try to end segregation in a non-violent way
Dred Scott was born into slavery in 1795. He was owned by Peter Blow.
After Peter Blow died, Scott was purchased by John Emerson.
Emerson was a surgeon who traveled to Illinois and Wisconsin which prohibited slavery.
When Emerson died Scott tried to buy his freedom from the widow but she refused.
He then sued to get his freedom because he had been living in free territories.
In 1846 Scott lost his initial suit in St.Louis but won in a second trial, only to have decision overruled by Missouri State Supreme Court.
Scott then decided to file another suit in 1854 in federal court against John Sanford. It was decided in favor of the opposing.
Scott then decided to bring the issue to the US Supreme court in 1856. On March 6th of 1857 the decision was made. The outcome was delivered by the Chief of Justice Roger Taney saying "... They had no rights which the white man was bound to respect."
So the Scott's returned to Mrs.Emerson until she re-married and she sent them back to the younger generation of Blow's who set him free in May of 1857. He died September 17, 1958 a free man.
Background Knowledge Dred Scott vs Sanford
After the Springfield race riot, many civil-rights activists were concerned. Mary White Ovington, William English Walling, and Dr.Henry Moskowitz called for a meeting of 60 activists to create the National Negro Committee. A year later they changed their name to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In 1915 the NAACP had their first successful brief in which the Guinn vs United States case ruled that whites could not bypass voter literacy tests. In 1923 the NAACP case Moore vs Dempsey ruled that cities may not legally ban African-Americans from buying real estate.
Obviously the most important thing to the NAACP at the time of it's founding was to bring freedom to African Americans. But they are a group that fights for equality of all people no matter what religion, race, or belief. In 1940, they were also fighting for equality between men and women. They elected Mary McLeod Bethune as vice president of the organization to show that their women and women everywhere had strength and strong opinions and should have equal rights as the men.
Dred Scott
2.We Want Full Employment For Our People.
3.We Want An End To The Robbery
By The Capitalists Of Our Black Community.
4.We Want Decent Housing Fit For The Shelter Of Human Beings.

]
5.We Want Education For Our People That Exposes
The True Nature Of This Decadent American Society.
We Want Education That Teaches Us Our True History
And Our Role In The Present-Day Society.

7.We Want An Immediate End To
Police Brutality And Murder Of Black People.
8.
We Want Freedom For All Black Men
Held In Federal, State, County And City Prisons And Jails.
9.
We Want All Black People When Brought To Trial To Be Tried In
Court By A Jury Of Their Peer Group Or People From Their Black
Communities, As Defined By The Constitution Of The United States.
10.We Want Land, Bread, Housing, Education,
Clothing, Justice And Peace.

All information from:
http://www.marxists.org/
Full transcript