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Skype, Landline, and Cellular Network Interoperability Challenges

HIT 5327 Barbara Lee, Emmanuel Osei-kumi, & Khoa Nguyen
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Khoa Nguyen

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of Skype, Landline, and Cellular Network Interoperability Challenges

ACMA. (2012). VoIP and legislation, codes and standard. In Google [Software]. Retrieved September 12, 2012, from http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311047
McEvoy, A. (2005). The problems with (number) portability. PC World. In Google [Software]. Retrieved September 12, 2012, from http://pcworld.about.net/news/Sep132005id122448.htm
Balazs Godor; ,”World-Wide User Identification in Seven Characters with Unique Numbers Mapping,” Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning Symposium, 2006. NETWORKS 2006. 12th Internation, vol, no., pp.1-5, Nov. 2006 dpo: 10.1109/NETWKS.2006.300409 Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4082444&isnumber=4082389
Periannan, R. & Fahham F. URL:http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol4/fjf/report.html#appendix
Benson, T. (2012). Chapter 2: Why interoperability is hard. In T. Benson, Principles of health interoperability: HL7 and SNOMED (2nd ed., pp. 21-32). London: Springer-Verlag
Teixeira de Sousa, P. & Stuckmann, P. “Telecommunication Network Interoperability,” Tellecommunication Systems and Technologies. Vol II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C05/E6-108-22.pdf References Dropped Calls
Overcapacity on mobile networks overload available bandwidth for mobile phone users
Lack of geographic information to corresponding cellular IP address
Handover causes buffering
Fading, or reduction of signal strength
Interoperability hard to achieve with constantly evolving standards
Cellphone numbers aren’t restricted to the people that answer the call
Cellular networks serve multiple purposes, as do the telephone numbers in them
Area codes are only indicative of a cellphone number’s place of creation, but doesn’t foretell the place the call is presently taking place
Life cycle of a cellphone number varies
Interoperability hard to achieve with constantly evolving standards Challenges in Representing Cellular Networks When phone’s on
Determined by phone’s location, registers with appropriate BS. Cell position is stored at the responsible MSC
When call is made
BS monitors and reports quality of signal to responsible MSC, which then makes decisions pertaining the routing of the call
When an active call changes locations
The BS tracks phone’s location by its signal power and then informs MSC of any relocation
MSC then reauthorizes control of the call to the BS of the phone’s new cell. This is known as handover
2 ways data transmission can occur:
Via a Circuit-switched Network (MSC)
Via a Digital Data Cellular Network
Replaces the MSC with a packet switched technology, creating a virtual connection that assigns control to the correct BS when handover takes place Operation of the Cellular Phone Cellular or Mobile Networks
Cell phones make and receive calls through a base station via radio waves
Structure and Key Components of a Cellular Network
Mobile Device (MS)
Mobile phone
Base Station (BS)
“Cell sites”
A wireless communication station installed at a fixed location, connected to mobile phones via a radio interface
Communicates simultaneously with all mobiles to its cell, directing traffic to the Mobile Switching Center
Mobile Switching Network (MSC)
“Core Circuit Switched Network”; in charge of call switching and mobility management functions
Allows mobile devices to communicate with each other and telephones in the larger PSTN
Used for voice calls, SMS, and circuit switched data calls
Packet Switched Network
Enables the exchange of mobile data
Public Switched Telephone Network (PTSN)
A fixed and national communication system that connects users to the larger telephone network(e.g. landlines)
Integrated with MSC Cellular Networks Landline Telephone Numbers Numbering Plan Area Code for North America consists of the first digit (2-9), and (0-9) for both the second and third digits

Example of Number Plan Area Code in North America: (244) 335-5678

With the #011 to for all destinations outside the NANP Landline Telephone Numbers The telephone numbering plan is set by North American Numbering Plant (NANP), which governs 24 countries and territories including:
USA, Canada, Bermuda, and 17 nations of the Caribbean

The E.164 is the international standard protocol for telephone number plans that used in by NANP
The E.164 allows the seven characters of numbers to be dialed out The Convention about Area codes in North America
The Standards and Protocols in Telecommunication Number Plan in North America VoIP Static IP address = most VoIP
Does not change
Easy to locate you

Dynamic IP address:
New address every time internet is accessed
i.e. use different public phone booth each time
Privacy guarded VoIP VoIP interoperability example

Skype phone number
Skype software converts voice to data
1 Skype number = local, long distance, international
PC to PC call = best interoperability = free call
PC to land, PC to Mobile calls: less interoperability
Why?
Skype pays for connection to ATT
i.e. ATT’s IP address/phone number
ATT converts digital voice to analogue or cellular mode Interoperability in Telecommunications Technical interoperability
Moves data from system A to system B, neutralizing the effects of distance; domain-independent; meaning of what is exchanged is irrelevant to the ultimate purpose – Benson
Network interoperability
”ability of systems, units, or forces, to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units or forces, and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together” – National Telecommunications and information Administration
Functional interworking of a service across or between multi-vendor, multi-carrier interconnections (e.g. node-to-node or network-to-network) working under normal and stress conditions Barbara Lee
Emmanuel Osei-kumi
Khoa Nguyen Skype, Landline, and Cellular Network Interoperability Challenges Phone/computer = house Server = city Router = state VoIP VoIP = voice over Internet Protocol
Voice becomes packets of data

Internet Protocol (IP) = post office:
Routes the packets to IP address

Phone number becomes IP address

IP address has 4 groups of numbers separated by dots:
10 . 34 . 69 . 5 Network = street
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