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Unit 8a: Motivation

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Andrea Wilson

on 29 November 2018

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Transcript of Unit 8a: Motivation

Module 37:
Motivational Concepts

Module 39: Sexual Motivation
Module 40
Social Motivation: Affiliation Needs

Motivation at Work
Unit 8: Motivation, Emotion, Stress, and Health
Motivation
Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal. Perspectives on motivation include:

Instinct Theory
Drive-Reduction Theory
Arousal Theory
Hierarchy of Needs
Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology
Instincts
are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned
Drive-Reduction Theory
When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A psychological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivated an organism to satisfy the need (Hull 1951)
Drive Reduction
the psychological aim of drive reduction is

homeostasis
,
the maintenance of a steady internal state (e.g., steady body temperature or level blood sugar)
food
Empty Stomach
Drive
Reduction
Incentives
Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives
A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive
Optimum Arousal / Arousal Theory
Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition
The Physiology of Hunger
Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger
Stomach Removal
Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs, connected the esophagus to the small intestines, and the rats still felt hungry (and ate food)
Glucose
The
glucose
level in blood is maintained.
Insulin
decreases glucose in the blood, making us feel hungry
Levels of glucose are monitored by neurons in the stomach, liver and intestines. They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain
Hypothalamic Centers
Lateral Hypothalamus - stimulates hunger
Destruction of LH causes loss of appetite
reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin in the LH which leads rats to eat ravenously
Ventromedial Hypothalamus - depresses hunger
Leptin is hormone that signals the VMH that you have eaten enough
Destruction of VMH leads to excessive eating
Set-Point Theory
The Psychology of Hunger
Memory plays an important role in hunger. Due to difficulties with retention, amnesia patients eat frequently if given food
Taste Preference: Biology or Culture
Body chemistry and environmental factors influence not only when we feel hunger but what we feel hungry for
Hot Culture, Hot Spices
Countries with hot climates use more bacteria-inhibiting spices in meat dishes
Obesity
A disorder characterized by being excessively overweight
Obesity increases the risk for health issues like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and back problems


Module 38: Hunger Motivations
Natures way of ensuring the survival of the species
The Physiology of Sex
Masters and Johnson (1966) describe the human sexual response to consist of four phases
Phase
Physiological Response
Excitement

Plateau

Orgasm

Resolution
Genitals prepare for intercourse. Breathing and heart rate increases

Changes that relate to excitement reach a peak


Contraction throughout the body. Sexual climax


Body returns to its normal state. Males go through a refractory period

Hormones and Sexual Behavior
Sex hormones affect the development of sexual characteristics and activate sexual behavior
Testes in males produce
testosterone
. Small amounts of estrogen are also present. Levels remain fairly constant

In females, ovaries produce
estrogen
and adrenals produce small amounts of testosterone. Estrogen levels are highest when fertility peaks
The Psychology of Sex
Hunger responds to a need. If we do not eat, we die. In that sense, sex is not a need because if we do not have sex, we do not die
External and Internal Motivation
Sexually explicit material leads to heightened arousal in both men and women. With repeated exposure, individuals become
habituated
to the stimuli
Imagined (internal) stimuli has a strong impact on arousal and desire. Dreams are also associated with sexual imagery and arousal for most men and many women
Physiological Readiness
Imagined Stimuli
External Stimuli
Sexual Motivation
“[Man] is a social animal,” (Aristotle). Separation from others increases our need to belong.

Benefits of Belonging
Social bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rates. These bonds led to the following:

Protecting against predators, especially for the young.
Procuring food.
Reproducing the next offspring.

Belongingness
Wanting to Belong
: The need to belong colors our thinking and emotions.
Social Acceptance
: A sense of belonging with others increases our self-esteem. Social segregation decreases it.
Maintaining Relationships
: We resist breaking social bonds, even bad ones.
Ostracism
: Social exclusion leads to demoralization, depression, and at times nasty behavior.
Fortifying Health
: People who tend to have close friends are happier and healthier.

People have different attitudes toward work. Some take it as a:
Job - a necessary way to make money
Career - an opportunity to advance from one position to another
Calling - fulfilling a socially useful activity
Flow & Rewards
Flow is the experience between no work and a lot of work. Flow marks immersion into one’s work
.

People who “flow” in their work (artists, dancers, composers etc.) are driven less by extrinsic rewards (money, praise, promotion) and more by intrinsic rewards.

In industrialized countries, work and satisfaction go hand-in-hand
Industrial-Organizational (I/0) Psychology
Applies psychological principles to the workplace.

Personnel Psychology: Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers.

Organizational Psychology: Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.

Personnel Psychology
Personnel psychologists assist organizations at various stages of selecting and assessing employees.

Harnessing Strengths
Identifying people’s strengths (analytical, disciplined, eager to learn etc.) and matching them to a particular area of work is the first step toward workplace effectiveness.

Interviews & Performance
Interviewers are confident in their ability to predict long-term job performance. However, informal interviews are less informative than standardized tests.

The Interviewer Illusion
Interviewers often overrate their discernment.

Intention vs. Habits: Intensions matter, but long- lasting habits matter even more.
Successful Employees: Interviewers are more likely to talk about those employees that turned out successful.
Presumptions about Candidates: Interviewers presume (wrongly) that what we see (candidate) is what we get.
Preconceptions: An interviewer’s prior knowledge about the candidate may affect her judgment.

Structured Interview
A formal and disciplined way of gathering information from the interviewee. Structured interviews pinpoint strengths (attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills). The personnel psychologist may do the following:

1. Analyze the job
2. Script the questions
3. Train the interviewer
Personnel Psychologists Tasks
Appraising Performance
Appraising performance results in two things: 1) employee retention, and 2) the encouragement of better performance.

Organizational Psychology: Motivating Achievement
Achievement motivation is defined as a desire for significant accomplishment.

Skinner devised a daily discipline schedule that led him to become the 20th century's most influential psychologst
Satisfaction & Engagement
Harter et al., (2002) observed that employee engagement means that the worker:

Knows what is expected of him.
Feels the need to work.
Feels fulfilled at work.
Has opportunities to do his best.
Thinks himself to be a part of something significant.
Has opportunities to learn and develop.

Managing Well
Every leader dreams of managing in ways that enhance people's satisfaction, engagement, and productivity in his or her organization
Job-Relevant Strengths
Effective leaders need to select the right people, determine their employees’ talents, adjust their work roles to their talents, and develop their talents and strengths.

Challenging Goals
Specific challenging goals motivate people to reach higher achievement levels, especially if there is feedback such as progress reports
Leadership Style
Different organizational demands need different kinds of leaders. Leadership varies from a boss-focused style to a democratic style.

Task Leadership: Involves setting standards, organizing work, and focusing on goals.

Social Leadership: Involves mediating conflicts and building high achieving teams.


Motivation Based on Psychological Needs
McClelland's Theory (1961, 1987)
Dweck's Self-Theory of Motivation
We have psychological needs not addressed in previous theories.
Affiliation (nAff)- need to belong and be held in high esteem
Power (nPow) - need for control and prestige
Achievement (nAch)- need to meet goals and succeed
Need for achievement is linked with view of self and locus of control
Theories about ourselves effect achievement and perseverance in the face of failure
Intelligence fixed and unchangeable,
exernal locus of control
- give up easily, avoid situations where they might fail
Intelligence is changeable and can be shaped by experience and effort,
internal locus of control
- feel empowered, motivated and resilient
Key Terms
Instinct
Drive-reduction Theory
Homeostasis
Incentive
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Hierarchy of Needs
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Law stating that when tasks are simple, a higher level of arousal leads to a better performance; when tasks are difficult, lower levels of arousal lead to better performance
Key Terms
Glucose
Set Point
Basal Metabolic Rate
Set Point -
The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below that weight hunger is increased and metabolism is decreased.

Basal Metabolic Rate -
The body's resting rate of energy expenditure
Factors Contributing to Obesity
Problems with set point and metabolism
Genetic factors
Activity factors
Social influence
Key Terms
Sexual Response Cycle
Refractory Period
Sexual Dysfunction
Estrogens
Testosterone
Connecting and Social Networking
Social networking is increasingly moving to a digital format
This allows for a more diversified social network
Some report feeling more isolated
Although some create false personas, anonymity generally allows a person's true colors to come out
Without face-to-face interaction, people are more willing to share personal details
People with narcissism tend to be very active on social media rather than social media creating narcissistic tendencies
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