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Tattoo Stigma Across the Ages

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Catie Helvie

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of Tattoo Stigma Across the Ages

References
Tattoo Stigma Across the Ages
Catie Helvie
Introduction
Martin and Dula (2010) found that over 40% of 25-40 year olds had at least one tattoo. This is a massive increase from the 3% just 20 years ago.
Within the last 30 years, there has been an exponential increase in the amount of people getting tattoos. (Carmen, Guitar, & Dillon, 2012)

It is thought that people with tattoos are less successful in school, had unhappier childhoods, and usually come from broken homes, when compared to non-tattooed people. (Martin & Dula, 2010)
Men and women with tattoos have different sigmas attached to them. Men are seen to be more impulsive and less inhibited, while women are seen to have more sexual partners. (Wohlrab, Fink, Kappeler, & Thorn, 2004)
A study done based on personal characteristics of people with tattoos, specifically in terms of employment, found that tattooed people were not viewed positively. On a 1 to 5 scale, they had an overall service quality of 2.23.(Karl, Hall, & Peluchette, 2013)
Another study had participants rate a person on characteristics such as attractiveness, creativity, honesty, intelligence level, athleticism, and religiousness. Tattooed people were generally rated more poorly. However, it was found that content changed participant's opinions. When the picture showed a dragon tattoo, there was a more negative response than when it showed a dolphin tattoo. (Resenhoeft, Villa, & Wiseman, 2008)
A study done to see if tattooed employees were equally accepted in either daycare centers or managers offices found no significant differences in hiring percentages. (Burgess & Clark, 2010)
Methods
Participants were recruited in a convenience sample. There were 49 total, 37% male and 63% female. Ages ranged from 18 to 87.
Participants were given an informed consent form, then took a survey, designed using the Likert scale. All participants took the same survey, which contained three different manipulations.
After all of the surveys were completed, some of the questions were scaled into two groups: tattoo acceptance and tattoo stigma. These two groups were each then split into two sections: high and low.
Demographics: age, gender, profession
Rate on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) the following statements: tattoos are acceptable, in all or only certain workplaces; people with tattoos are bad and want attention; tattoos are the problem with society; content and placement off the tattoo affect my tolerance of it.
Do you have tattoos; if yes, how many and are they are covered in normal work clothing; if no, would you consider getting one.
Imagine you're a hiring manager. Rate on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) the following statements, given that the applicant has all appropriate qualifications: I would hire this person if they had no tattoos; I would hire if their tattoos could be covered; I would hire them with visible tattoos.
Answer those three questions for each different scenario. You're hiring at a professional company, at a retail store, and for a personal babysitter.
Results
Repeated measures ANOVA was found significant when using Greenhouse-Geisser correction for sphericity: F(1.57,75.15)=4.47, p=.02
Mixed ANOVA found no main effect of either the independent variables. F(1,47)=.54, p=.47; F(1.36,63.48)=1.92, p=.17 However, it found a marginally significant interaction effect. F(1.36,63.48)=2.82, p=.09
Discussion
Data did not support the hypothesis.
Found that there is a significant difference of when participants would hire a person with visible tattoos. Most likely hired in a retail store, less likely as a babysitter, and least likely in a professional business.
Found a minor relationship between which group (high stigma or low stigma) would hire a person whose tattoos could be covered. The low stigma group of participants were more likely to hire this person than the high stigma group was.
Improvements
Have more participants in the study
Be more specific to get rid of confounds.
Have three different surveys: one for each type of employment. Have manipulations for each survey; such as differing tattoo content and placement exmaple. Each participant randomly selects which survey they take.
Burgess, M., & Clark, L. (2010). Do the 'savage origins' of tattoos cast a prejudicial shadow on contemporary tattooed individuals? Journal Of Applied Social Psychology, 40(3), 746-764. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00596.x
Carmen, R. A., Guitar, A. E., & Dillon, H. M. (2012). Ultimate answers to proximate questions: The evolutionary motivations behind tattoos and body piercings in popular culture. Review Of General Psychology, 16(2), 134-143. doi:10.1037/a0027908
Hawkes, D., Senn, C. Y., & Thorn, C. (2004). Factors That Influence Attitudes Toward Women With Tattoos. Sex Roles, 50(9-10), 593-604. doi:10.1023/B:SERS.0000027564.83353.06
Karl, K. A., Hall, L., & Peluchette, J. V. (2013). City employee perceptions of the impact of dress and appearance: You are what you wear. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 452-470. doi:10.1177/0091026013495772
Martin, B., & Dula, C. S. (2010). More than skin deep: Perceptions of, and stigma against, tattoos. College Student Journal, 44(1), 200-206.
Resenhoeft, A., Villa, J., & Wiseman, D. (2008). Tattoos can harm perceptions: A study and suggestions. Journal Of American College Health, 56(5), 593-596. doi:10.3200/JACH.56.5.593-596
Wohlrab, S., Fink, B., Kappeler, P. M., & Brewer, G. (2009). Perception of human body modification. Personality And Individual Differences, 46(2), 202-206. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.031
I hypothesize that tattoos are not being seen very negatively anymore, however they are still less acceptable in more professional workplaces. This study will be done to see how accepted tattoos are in different work atmospheres. It will also control for the fact that, typically, content and placement of the tattoo affects the participant's tolerance of the tattoo.
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