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Rural and remote Area Nursing
Transcript of Rural and remote Area Nursing
At present there is a lack of evidence on how to
and move forward to prevent the health services
between rural and urban Australia widening.
Article gives us insight into the health services outcomes and inequalities experienced by people in rural
compared to that of metropolitan Australia.
The article emphasizes the need for greater
based knowledge on longitudinal evaluations on
delivery of primary health services.
Australian based article
A multidisciplinary refereed journal
Excellence in Research Australia 2012
Published by Australian Research Council with Fields of Research, Medical & Health Science, and Studies in Human Society
Listed in Medline
Evaluating the impact of sustainable comprehensive primary
health care on rural health
- Tutor at Monash University
- Phd Candidate at University of Melbourne
- Co-convenor Primary Health Care Special Interest Group
- Research areas & supervision interests; e.g. rural oral health, health service evaluation, access and equity, building effective collaborations, the impact of ecosystem change on public health, and international health.
Tham, R., Humphreys, J., Kinsman, L., Buykx, P., Asaid, A., Tuohey, K., et al., (2010). Evaluating the impact of sustainable comprehensive primary health care on rural health. The Australian Journal of Rural Health, 18, 166–172.
Context and Authority
The Australian Journal of Rural Health &
National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Q1. What are some focus issues experienced as to why the evaluation study was conducted?
Q2. How has this evaluation framework model assisted your understanding?
Tham et al. established an outcome and evaluation framework measuring performance, sustainability, quality of care, utilization and health outcomes including individual and the communities’ growth, development, health behaviors and outcomes of services provided.
The framework was used in conjunction with a study undertaken at the Elmore Primary Health Service (EPHS). The framework examined qualitative data to measure the quality and sustainability of the service and patient outcomes.
- Emeritus Professor of Rural Health Research in Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences at Monash University
- Qualification: Dr of Philosophy at the institute of Monash University
- Research and supervision interests: The provision of sustainable primary health care services in rural areas; the evaluation of rural health planning and policies
- Senior Research Fellow in Office of Research, based at the School of Rural Health, Bendigo.
- Dr of Philosophy in Curtin University of Technology
- Graduate Diploma applied Psychology in Swinburne University of Technology
- Bachelor of Behavioural Science in La Trobe University
- Research & Supervision interests: e.g. Models of health service provision, health service evaluation and population health
- PhD Dr from Elmore Primary Health Service, Victoria, Australia
- General manager of primary health at Bendigo Community Health Services,
- Researcher from Elmore Primary Health Service, Victoria, Australia
- Deputy CEO at Bendigo Community Health Services.
- Previously was the first Executive Officer of Bendigo Loddon Primary Care Partnership and held a senior lecturer position in Nursing and Public Health at Latrobe University, Bendigo.
- Associate Professor, Centre of Research Excellence in Rural & Remote Primary Health Care, and Director of the Office of Research at the School of Rural Health, Bendigo.
- Qualifications: PhD, Master of Health Science and Bachelor of Health science (Nursing studies) in the institute of La Trobe University, Bendigo.
Australia’s peak non-government organisation for rural and remote health
Goal of equal health for all Australians by the year 2020
Comprises 34 Member Bodies
E.g. representation from the ATSI health sector, health professional organizations, and service providers
No specific age group identified
Stated only ''focus groups''
Lacks numerical data concerning number of participants or completed surveys
No given statements or opinions from focus groups or participants
Does not carry out further investigations or thorough research to provide rigour evidence in regards to which rural health service works well
Limited to only one facility
Results cannot be generalised of the outcomes of rural health care
Leads to reduced reliability and validity of research findings
Consistent throughout the article
Coherent and concise layout
Referred to relevant databases, e.g. PubMed, Medline
Obtained current journal articles
A conceptual framework
Sentinel indicators for measuring the sustainability and effectiveness of rural primary health care services
Rigorous comprehensive health service evaluation research are outlined.
Evaluating helps to minimize the gap between rural and urban primary health care services and
Allows for a greater understanding of successful and non-successful services.
Framework gives health providers and policy maker’s reliable evidence
Comprehensive evaluations are ideal
Provide evidence for policy development and implementation and provides other primary health services with knowledge of what services work well.
Thank you :)
Strengths of the study
Focuses on the structure and performance of Elmore primary health service rather than how the facilities actually manages and treats illness & disease.
The information and data collected is limited to surveys and electronic records.
The primary health centre that was used, was already a well established facility
- Australian Journal of Rural Health. (2013). AJRH. Retrieved from http://www.ruralhealth.org.au/ajrh
- Bendigo Advertiser. (2013). Health study for Elmore. Retrieved from
- LinkedIn Corporation. (2013). Rachel Tham. Retrieved from http://au.linkedin.com/pub/rachel-tham/25/8bb/760
- McMurray, A., Clendon, J. (2010). Community Health and Wellness: Primary Health Care In practice. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier
- Monash University. (2013). Assoc Prof Leigh Kinsman - Researcher Profile. Retrieved from
- Monash University. (2013). Emeritus Prof John Humphreys - Researcher Profile. Retrieved from
- Monash University. (2013). Dr Penelope Buykx - Researcher Profile. Retrieved from
- National Rural Health Alliance Inc. (2013). Australian Journal of Rural Health. Retrieved from
- Research gate. (2013). Kathy Tuohey. Retrieved from
- Tham, R., Humphreys, J.S., Asaid, A., Riley, K., Jones, J., Kinsman, L., et al. (n.d). ‘Making a difference’— the impact of sustainable primary health care on rural health. Retrieved from http://www.ruralhealth.org.au/10thNRHC/10thnrhc.ruralhealth.org.au/papers/docs/Tham_Rachel_C3.pdf
- Zoom info. (2013). Karen Riley. Retrieved from http://www.zoominfo.com/p/Karen-Riley/574426007
Elmore Primary Health Service (EPHS) framework
The results of the study provide feedback for health practitioners for the continual reliance on monitoring, routine data collection, engagement and feedback from the so that valid and reliable results can be established so that primary health care services can be modified and reforms can be made to existing health services being provided.
The results from EPHS indicate the need for evaluation frameworks in rural primary health services to measure what is successful and unsuccessful.
Continual evidence based research can provide sustainable and effective care and policies makers are able to determine what works well, where and why so that health inequalities and outcomes experienced by rural Australians can be managed.
Services inequalities were experienced by people in rural area’s compared to that of metropolitan Australia.
There is a need for greater evidence based knowledge on longitudinal evaluations of primary health services performance, sustainability, quality of care, utilization and health outcomes.
There is a lack of evidence on how to approach and move forward to prevent the health services gap between rural and urban Australia widening.