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CIVIL WAR

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marwa alhamad

on 20 May 2015

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Transcript of CIVIL WAR

CIVIL WAR
THE CAUSES, THE EFFECTS AND THE PARTIES INVOLVED
A civil war is a conflict between two parties from
the same nation or country
. This conflict often involves organized regular armed forces. The high intensity of war usually results in a great deal of casualties and a consumption of important resources.
What is a
Civil War
?
The widely used classification of civil wars is to have more than
1000
war-related casualties per year of conflict. “
Based on this criterion there were 213 civil wars from 1816 to 1997, 104 of which occurred from 1944 to 1997

the criteria for recognizing a civil war
motivation
Past studies have shown that in order for a rebellion to arise there must be both:
opportunities
so what were the motivations for the following civil wars ?
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
(1860-1865)

The American civil war was waged when
11 states
decided to withdraw from the union and shape their own government.
These states formed what was called the “
the confederate states of America
” also referred to as “
the South

The states that did not split were called “
the Union
” or “
the North
”.
The reason for the secession was mainly because of the debates over
states’ rights
, specifically
slavery
.


According to David Goldfield:


Both northerners and southerners recognized slavery as the immediate cause of civil war
”.

THE INDUSTRIALIZED NORTH
THE AGRARIAN SOUTH
The south was dependent on slave labor and cotton culture.
"By 1860 the cotton trade held 57% of the value of all American exports worth $191,000,000 turning the South into a cotton empire."
The Northern states were industry prospered, urbanized and had smaller plantations rather than large. they had more resources and were dependent on wage labor. slavery was nonexistence in the northern states.
The conflict over western land
Both the south and the north realized the importance of west lands, and that whoever seizes control over it will dominate the nation. and so the north wanted a west composed of small farmers who provided a market for the eastern goods and produced food and raw materials for the industrial and commercial east. but the south wanted western lands for the expansion of cotton and slave culture.
therefore, in order to protect the cotton economy; the south worked toward expanding to the west and protecting slavery.
“The whole nation is
interested
that the
best use
shall be made of these territories. We want them for homes and
free white people
. This they cannot be, to any considerable extent, if slavery shall be planted within them. new free states are places for poor people to go to and better their condition”

Abraham Lincoln
The civil war corresponded to the presidency of Abraham Lincoln. The election of Abraham Lincoln triggered the secession, the south formed their own government with Jefferson Davis as president for the confederate. The congress considered this secession to be illegal and therefore declared war against the confederate states in April 14, 1861.
In the beginning of the war, Abraham Lincoln deliberately tried to downplay the slavery angle; arguing that the war was only about preserving "the union".
But the war was also about religion, for both sides, as David Goldfield put it:

"
In protecting the revolutionary ideals northerners would preserve god’s plan to extend democracy and Christianity across an unbroken continent and around the world. Southerners welcomed a war to create a nation more perfect in its fealty to god than the one that they had left
".
Was It About
RELIGION
?
presidency of Abraham Lincoln
“As he died to make men holy, let us die to make men free”


Julia Ward Howe
Who
WON
the war?
THE
UNION
WON
They had massive advantages:

They had many more people (approximately
22 million
) as compared to
9 million
in the south (
3.5 million
of them were slaves).
The North manufactured
more than 90%
of all goods in America; its factories turned out
17
times more
textiles
than the south,
30
times more
shoes and boots
,
13
times more
iron
, and
32
times more
firearms
.
The North had
20,000 miles of railroads
compared with the south's
10,000
.
Even northern agriculture was more productive taking greater advantage of Mechanization than the southern farmers did.
Robert E. Lee
ULYSSES S. GRANT

The most successful leader the union found.

He was branded as a "BUTCHER".

His brutal strategy helped the union win the war.
JULY 1863
Two of the most important victories in the whole war
General Grant laid siege to and captured Vicksburg, Mississippi
The battle of Gettysburg
AUGUST 1864
Another turning point that spelled the doom for the confederacy.
UNION GENERAL SHERMAN TOOK
ATLANTA
It was significant more politically than military
The capture o ATLANTA changed public opinion about LINCOLN during the reelection in 1864, and it meant that Lincoln's opponent McClellan didn't stand a chance or winning.

Lincoln got reelected
DID LINCOLN FREE THE SLAVES?
In January 1st, 1863 Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which did free the slaves only in the territory rebelling against the United States.
Lincoln didn't free the slaves he had the authority to.
The slaves freed themselves by crossing the union lines.
Eventually the union army had about 180,000 of former slaves and free black men

Lincoln shifted war focus from union to slavery
EFFECTS of THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
photography influenced how the public at large perceived the war. by Mathew Brady
federalization and unification of the United States
homesteading, land grant universities, railroads, federal CURRENCY, and taxes.
RWANDA
1994
How did Rwanda get to the point where tens of thousands of people were prepared to
brutally murder
their neighbors?
THE OUTCOMES
created grudges
endless remorse
looking at both sides
Full transcript