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History of Reading Instruction Timeline
Transcript of History of Reading Instruction Timeline
New England Primers are the earliest reading books. They included the alphabet, stories, verses and rhymes. During this time frame, text was based on religious views and patriotism. The primary instruction method was reciting alphabet, memorization, oral reading, and spelling bees. Horn Book & New England Primers American Spelling
Book by Noah Webster Mid 1800's 1843 1841 McGuffey Reader by
Rev. William Holmes McGuffey 1879 Horace Mann First Teacher Manuel
Directions for teachers. McGuffey Reader - was publication of lessons that first focused on phonics, syllables, alphabet, and sight words. Stories were more complex with some comprehension questions. These evolved over time to include content areas of science and history and selections from famous authors including Shakespeare.
Horace Mann - Known as the father of American Education set up the first teacher education program. Horace believed in education for all and in 1852, Compulsory Education (Education required for all) was established in Massachusetts and then all states by 1918.
Late 1800's - During this time instruction focused on the Phonics Method (Sound then letter) and Word Method (Sight words/whole words). Farnham later introduced sentence method in which sentences were taught as a whole and later analyzed 1900-1950 First Half of the Twentieth
Century George Farnham 1908 1920 1930-1960's E. B. Huey 1917 1915 1st standardized
test Thorndike's Reading
Comprehension Exam Leveled Readers Classical Conditioning
Theory E.B Huey- Huey condemned the phonics approach. He examined reading through a scientific perspective and liked the whole word method. Reading in schools had switched from learning about the bible to reading for information and commerce since a wave of new immigrants arrived.
Thorndike - During 1915-1917, nation-wide standardized testing took place both for WWI reasons and scientific reasons to measure cognitive abilities. Binets IQ test, Grays Oral Reading Test and reading comprehension tests were created.
Pavlov, Piaget, Rosenblatt - During the early part of the twentieth century, many theories began to unfold and shape reading instruction. Under the theory of Behaviorism, Pavlov had the Classical Conditioning Theory, in which he focuses on behavior before stimuli. Thorndike had the theory of Connectionism and focused on stimuli that follows behavior which both dealt with how a persons response to stimuli could be manipulated.
Implication for instruction includes Direct Instruction, reading readiness.
Constructivism Theory happened during the 1920's. It is the idea that learning happens when prior knowledge is used to form new knowledge. John Dewey, Louise Rosenblatt are both constructivist.
Implications for reading instruction include referencing, inquiry learning (problem-based learning), cooperative learning, using students schema to activate prior knowledge which includes pre-reading strategies.
Many of these theorist believed in the Language Experience Approach (LEA) and whole language theory. 1950 - 2000 Second Half of the
Twentieth Century 2010 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr Era of Conditioned
Learning 1976-1985 1950-65 1966-75 1986-1995 Era of Natural
Learning Era of Information
Processing Era of Sociocultural
Learning Era of Conditioned Learning - Learning to read has been broken down into discrete skills. There was a large push for synthetic phonics (words to letters) and controlled vocabulary instruction.
Era of Natural Learning - There was conflict among scholars on whether reading is a distinct set of skills. Linguists changed our reading instruction. Chomsky believed humans are more mentally hard-wired to learn and we need less of the environment to help in learning like behaviorist believed. The idea is that learners actively construct knowledge.
Era of information processing - The Schema theory and activating prior-knowledge was important. There was an idea that student knowledge can be altered through direct intervention and explicit instruction. Strategies that were popular for reading including predicting, self-questioning, concept mapping and summarization.
Era of sociocultural learning - Constructivist theory comes back with a bang at this time period and still continues to. Focus is on the individual learner and social and cultural factors influence how students learn.
Engaged Learning- There is a large consideration for non-linear text as technology and 21st Century literacy skills emerge. Motivation is a factor in how students learn to read and students are no longer "learning to read" but "reading to learn". 1956 Blooms Taxonomy By: Christina Camacho The End Look Say Basal Readers Basal programs bring more single tests focus on comprehension (main idea, drawing conclusions, cause and effect, and phonics skills (vowel patterns, consonant sounds, etc) Psycholinguistic perspective on
reading: Focused on making meaning,
understanding reading process (Errors are OK)
and miscue analysis.