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Archaea Presentation, Phylum Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota

By Ryan Chang
by

Ryan Chang

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Archaea Presentation, Phylum Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota

The Domain Archaea. By Ryan Chang Phylum/Kingdom
Crenarchaeota Phylum/Kingdom
Euryarcharota About the Domain: Phylum and a Kingdom? -No parallel Phylum.
-Unlike any other phylum, or kingdom.
-This is under Archaea, and otherwise.
-Less names to remember is better. What exactly defines this phylum? -Temperature and Acidity
-Most prefer heat, but some can survive in the cold.
-Can live in pH as low as 2.
-Prokaryotic organisms.
-Must have Ether-linked lipids for their membranes Prokaryotic organisms Things bounded by ether-linked lipid membranes? What? Ether linkages are a type of bonding between lipids. This is significant because cell membranes are composed of lipids, and therefore is changing their composition. A prokaryotic organism is a single-celled creature that is summed up as a cell that lacks a nucleus (karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. This means that the DNA of the cell, and all of it's life functions are all located in the same area, just within the cell membrane. This simplifies the cell, and allows it more "Wiggle room" in terms of environments, it also limits it in such a way where it cannot be a multicellular organism. While some have stages in their life where they are multicellular, this does not last their entire life, and are normally only one cell. Reproduction -Creatures in the Crenarchaeota phylum eproduce via Binary Fission.
-This is a complicated way to say "Cell dvision"
-This is normal cell reproduction, the stucc taught in basic Biology. Evolution, Reproduction, and Genetics. Genetics, and Evolution -Have a fairly simple Genome, at least compared to what we're used to.
-Only one Circular Chromosome in the center of the cell.
-This term is used lightly because of the lack of histones in prokaryotics. Ecology and Habitat -Hot environments
-Volcanoes
-Mud Volcanoes (See images)
-Sulfur Pools
-Acidic Envoronments.
-Occasionally places of extreme cold. Phylum Examples -Pyrolobus fumarii: Survives in temperatures of 110°C, and can proliferate (Grow in numbers rapidly, or multiply).
-Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: since it grows optimally at pH 2-3, roughly that of stomach acids. It also requires oxygen in order to survive, despite also needing acidic environments. Conservation Is this species either endangered, in a position to become endangered, and if they were, would we do anything about it? To all of these, probably not. There are so many of this phylum that it's improbable that we will ever see them even endangered, and due to their lack of prominence to the average person, as well as, at least seeming, somewhat insignificant to the environment (At least to an uninformed person), it is unlikely any action will be taken to save this phylum. We could also likely repopulate with what we do have currently anyways, as a small population can regrow if given enough time to do so, as well as the proper conditions. Another Phylum that's considered a Kingdom? -Like the last one, there are no parallel Phylum in the kingdom.
-Unique phylum and kingdom.
-Less names, less to remember. Traits of the phylum. -Thrive in highly salty environments.
-Must be an anaerobic environment, meaning that there can be not oxygen,
-Oftentimes found in swamps, wetlands, and the guts of various animals, including cows, deer, and humans. Anaerobic Environments? Anaerobic means "Without air" or more specifically to biology, without oxygen. Basically, if something need to exist in an anaerobic environment, there either should be no oxygen, or it doesn't matter if there is oxygen or not. This is significant because organisms will work very differently is they do or do not use oxygen, or if they are adversely affected by it. Most life we know of is aerobic, since most creatures that we know require oxygen in order to survive, and without it, will suffocate. Genetics, and Evolution Interestingly, we had an entire Euryarcharota genome before we physically saw it due to our inability to grow it in a lab before we got lucky with 25 gallons of seawater. It also only has a singular circular chromosome, again meaning that the genome is fairly simple. It also has an odd mix of traits from bacteria and eukaryotes, like it's bacteria-like membrane and chromosome from bacteria, and histones and nucleosome-like structures from eukaryotes. Evolution, Reproduction, and Genetics. Reproduction Similarly to Crenenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota are single-celled organisms, and therefore reproduce via Binary Fission. The cell will separate the two strands of it's DNA, put them on opposite ends of itself, and then split into two new cells before reforming its genome. Normal reduction for a cell and all, nothing too out of the ordinary. Ecology and Habitat -Thrive in highly salty water environments.
-Normally near the ocean.
-Can also be where ocean water has evaporated.
-Lakes in Salt deposits.
-In locations like these, there are few predators, so they can grow in numbers to such a degree that they can change the water color. Phylum Examples -Halobacterium: Known for being able to reach numbers large enough to discolor bodies of water.
-Is also cappable of surviving on only light, and has been studied for this.
-Methanococcus: This was the first Euryarcharota to have it's DNA sequenced.
-It was also the first species found at hydrothermal vents, proving life can exist in extreme conditions. Conservation Again, is this species either endangered, in a position to become endangered, and if they were, would we do anything about it? Again, no, and it is highly unlikely that they will ever be. Even so, if were were to take action, we could save them were we to make large enough tanks of salt water to preserve them in long enough to make a large population to put them back into their natural habitat. However, this is all highly unlikely, and as with the last one, it is unapparent to the average uninformed person, so we will likely not take action, or be motivated to preserve this phylum. The Domain Archaea. By Ryan Chang Phylum/Kingdom
Crenarchaeota Phylum/Kingdom
Euryarcharota About the Domain: The major things that define the Domain Archaea are that the lifeforms must be able to survive extreme conditions, either be it intense heat, cold, acidity, or miscellaneous things, like extreme salt content. It should also be noted that all Archaea are single celled, and most likely prokaryotes, or similar to them. This is because they rely on the least to live in the first place, and therefore, can simplify biological necessities to better survive the extreme conditions that no other domain would even conceive living in. Why is it considered a Phylum and a Kingdom? Crenarchaeota is seen as both a phylum and a kingdom because of the fact that, unlike in many other Domains, there is no parallel phylum in the kingdom, so instead of creating separate names for the phylum and kingdom, they named them the same thing. What exactly defines this phylum? There are a few things that define this phylum. They also have to have an extreme tolerance for acidic and heat conditions, placing them in the archaea domain. While most species are heat resistant, there are some species that thrive in the cold, but cannot survive in even average conditions. Creatures in this domain also have to be Prokaryotic single cellular organisms that are bounded by ether-linked lipid membranes, or else they will fall into another phylum completely. Prokaryotic organisms Things bounded by ether-linked lipid membranes? What? Ether linkages are a type of bonding between lipids. This is significant because cell membranes are composed of lipids, and therefore is changing their composition. A prokaryotic organism is a single-celled creature that is summed up as a cell that lacks a nucleus (karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. This means that the DNA of the cell, and all of it's life functions are all located in the same area, just within the cell membrane. This simplifies the cell, and allows it more "Wiggle room" in terms of environments, it also limits it in such a way where it cannot be a multicellular organism. While some have stages in their life where they are multicellular, this does not last their entire life, and are normally only one cell. Reproduction Seeing that all Crenenarchaeota are single-celled organisms, they reproduce via Binary Fission, also known as Cell Division. This is the commonly known way that cells reproduce, where they will make a duplicate of their DNA, and then separate into two different cells, both with the same genome. Evolution, Reproduction, and Genetics. Genetics, and Evolution The Crenenarchaeota are relatively simple with their genetics, seeing that they are prokaryotes One species, Aeropyrum pernix, has had its genome completely sequenced because of this. Now, specifying more on why prokaryotes are genetically simplified, they only have one single, circular chromosome that has no histones, meaning there are no chromosomes, and does not organize as much as Eukaryotic DNA does. Ecology and Habitat Most Crenarchaeota are found in locations with extreme conditions, such as in obsidian pools, and normal or mud volcanoes. This shows their extreme resilience to heat, seeing that humans generally like to stay far away from volcanoes due to the dangers of heat. They can also be found in Shallow water thermal springs and deep sea hydrothermal vents. Now, while most species prefer environments where the pH is either neutral or acidic, there are some species that actually die at a neutral pH, and thrive at pH 1 and 2. Phylum Examples There are a number of interesting species contained within this phylum, mainly for their ability to survive in almost unfathomably extreme conditions. One good one is Pyrolobus fumarii. This species is not only able to survive temperatures of 110°C, but proliferate (Grow in numbers rapidly). This is 10 degrees higher than water's boiling point. Another good example is Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, since it grows optimally at pH 2-3, and under strictly aerobic conditions. That means that it has to live in something about as strong as stomach acid, though, it still needs oxygen to survive. Pictures Conservation Is this species either endangered, in a position to become endangered, and if they were, would we do anything about it? To all of these, probably not. There are so many of this phylum that it's improbable that we will ever see them even endangered, and due to their lack of prominence to the average person, as well as, at least seeming, somewhat insignificant to the environment (At least to an uninformed person), it is unlikely any action will be taken to save this phylum. We could also likely repopulate with what we do have currently anyways, as a small population can regrow if given enough time to do so, as well as the proper conditions. Another Phylum that's considered a Kingdom? Similarly to the Crenarchaeota phylum, Euryarcharota is seen as both because of the lack of parallel phylum in the kingdom. While it could be possible to label them under the same kingdom as different phylum, they are also different enough to be classified separately. Traits of the phylum. One of the big things that defies organisms in this phylum is that they need to exist in locations where there is a large quantity of salt, such as in the ocean or where ocean water has evaporated. They also have to be in an anaerobic environment in order to survive, meaning there can be no oxygen in the air around them. They are generally found in swamps, wetlands, the guts of various kinds of animals, including cows, deer, and humans. Prokaryotic organisms Things bounded by ether-linked lipid membranes? What? Ether linkages are a type of bonding between lipids. This is significant because cell membranes are composed of lipids, and therefore is changing their composition. A prokaryotic organism is a single-celled creature that is summed up as a cell that lacks a nucleus (karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. This means that the DNA of the cell, and all of it's life functions are all located in the same area, just within the cell membrane. This simplifies the cell, and allows it more "Wiggle room" in terms of environments, it also limits it in such a way where it cannot be a multicellular organism. While some have stages in their life where they are multicellular, this does not last their entire life, and are normally only one cell. Genetics, and Evolution Interestingly, we had an entire Euryarcharota genome before we physically saw it due to our inability to grow it in a lab before we got lucky with 25 gallons of seawater. It also only has a singular circular chromosome, again meaning that the genome is fairly simple. It also has an odd mix of traits from bacteria and eukaryotes, like it's bacteria-like membrane and chromosome from bacteria, and histones and nucleosome-like structures from eukaryotes. Evolution, Reproduction, and Genetics. Reproduction Similarly to Crenenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota are single-celled organisms, and therefore reproduce via Binary Fission. The cell will separate the two strands of it's DNA, put them on opposite ends of itself, and then split into two new cells before reforming its genome. Normal reduction for a cell. Ecology and Habitat As previously mentioned, Euryarcharota need a salty environment. While in an environment like the ocean, there is simple too much space, and too many predators for this to happen, for them to amass like this, if they are within a small confined area, where the body of water is likely to have few, if any, predators, some species can discolor the water. However, the underlying factor here is salt and water, so as long as there are those two things, it can be possible to find Euryarcharota. Phylum Examples Within the Euryarcharota phylum, there are a few interesting species, and while not as many as Crenarchaeota seeing that salt is more common than extreme temperatures, there are ones with interesting stories and abilities. There is Halobacterium, which is known for being able to reach numbers large enough to discolor bodies of water, and run on only light, and is studied highly for that ability. There is also Methanococcus, and was the first Euryarcharota to have it's DNA sequenced. It was also the first species found at hydrothermal vents, and proved that life can live in extreme conditions like that. Pictures Conservation Again, is this species either endangered, in a position to become endangered, and if they were, would we do anything about it? Again, no, and it is highly unlikely that they will ever be. Even so, if were were to take action, we could save them were we to make large enough tanks of salt water to preserve them in long enough to make a large population to put them back into their natural habitat. However, this is all highly unlikely, and as with the last one, it is unapparent to the average uninformed person, so we will likely not take action, or be motivated to preserve this phylum. -Live in extreme environments
-Temperature, heat or cold.
-Need to be able to survive low pH, as low as pH 1.
-Some species live in other extremes, such as extremely salty conditions.
-Entirely Prokaryotic life.
-Specialized anatomy for their environments
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