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Facilitation & Presentation

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Balazs Felinger

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Facilitation & Presentation

Facilitation & Presentation

What is Facilitation?
Using a range of skills and methods, to bring out the best in people, as they work to achieve results in interactive ways.
Facilitation Skills and Methods
Results/Workshop Outputs
Getting Started
The first step for the facilitator is to get clear definition on the session objective. What exactly do you / the client want to have achieved by the end of the session? This first step is essential and applies to every facilitation situation and type of participant group.

Objective of the Session
Setting Ground Rules
As soon as you have agreed upon an overall objective for the session and communicated this to the group, it is important to establish some ground rules and to get the group’s complete agreement. These will cover issues such as safety, administration of the meeting and the types of behaviors the group expects from its participants.

These rules will help you stay on course during the discussions and are especially useful for managing any conflict which may arise, or getting back on time if you are running over schedule.
Before beginning the session, consider two essential questions:
As the facilitator, how much interaction will you have with the participants?
How much will you contribute to the content and outcome of the session?
Approaching Facilitation
Your Role as Facilitator
Some – do’s and don’ts – of Facilitation
Practice active listening
Keep yourself neutral on the content and avoid putting forward your own opinion

Communication Style
It’s not what you say – it’s how you say it! Researchers tell us that people form an impression of each other based on the following breakdown:
Tools for the Facilitator
A bag of tools will enable you to build some structure into your workshop and help you reach your workshop objectives.
Useful tools include:
Describing what success looks like
Visualization and imagination
Force Field Analysis
Root Cause Analysis
Case study
Role play
The ‘parking board’
Effective questioning
Effective Questioning Techniques
If you want to..
Stimulate everyone's thinking
Allow people to respond voluntarily, or avoid putting one particular individual on the spot
Encourage one person to think and to respond
Tap the known resources of an ‘expert’ in the group
Direct questions to the group as a whole
Ask a question such as: 
What experiences have you had with this problem? 
Direct the question to that individual:
How do you think we should handle this, Tony?
Direct the question to that person: 
Jane, you have a lot of experience ... What would you do?
Asking the right questions at the right time
Effective questioning means:
Creating Participation
People may find it difficult to contribute to a discussion for various reasons. Think about these main barriers to participation:
People may not understand the subject

Unclear instruction from the facilitator may lead to participants not knowing what they should be discussing

There may be a lack of commitment to the topic under discussion

People may feel uncertain about the quality of their personal contribution
Some participants may feel insecure about speaking in front of others

Participants might be afraid of the reaction of their colleagues

Talkative members could dominate the discussion and 'shut down' the less vocal people in the group

Some people may be reluctant to speak up in front of more senior colleagues

There may be a low level of trust and open­ness in the group
People will participate fully if they:
Feel relaxed with the other participants
Understand the topic under discussion
Have had some say in the planning process and feel committed the topic
Have the information and knowledge needed for a productive discussion
Feel 'safe' in expressing their opinions ie, they don’t feel unduly influenced or dominated by someone in the group
Trust and have confidence in the facilitator
Feel comfortable and at ease in the room
Believe that the organization will support their ideas
Although the participants may know each other, icebreakers will help set the tone for the session and build a supportive atmosphere.
Begin by ensuring everyone understands the purpose of the workshop. You could achieve this by using the following techniques:
Review why the workshop came about – what created the need? It is important to be sure that everyone understands the history or background to the situation.
Share any input the participants may have given in advance of the workshop. For example, responses to surveys, papers sent in advance etc.
Clearly state the goal or purpose for the facilitation and ensure everyone is in agreement about the desired outcome.
Ask the participants to commit to the purpose of the session – this will help you check that they fully understand the workshop purpose.
Activities to Promote Involvement
Ice Breakers
Outline the Subject
This simple technique can be used as a way of start­ing any discussion. After posing a question to a large group, ask everyone to find a partner and discuss the question for a few minutes.
Then, ask people to report on what they talked about. You can also use this with threesomes.

Place an empty cardboard box or plastic bowl on the table and give out small slips of paper. Ask people to write down one good idea per piece of paper and then throw the paper into the bowl.
When people have finished writing, have someone 'toss the salad’, by mixing up the pieces of paper in the bowl. Hand around the bowl so that each person can take out as many slips as they put in.
Go around the table and ask people to share ideas, before discussing and refining the most promising ones together.
This technique can also be used to define the issues or factors in a problem / situation.
High Participation Techniques
Tossed Salad
Discussion Partners 
Issues and Answers
When faced with a long list of issues to tackle, rather than attempting to problem solve all of them as a whole group (which would take forever); post the problems around the room. Put only one issue on each sheet of flip-chart paper.
Ask all participants to go to one of the issue sheets and discuss that problem with whoever else was drawn to that sheet. Ensure that people are distributed evenly, with at least three people per issue.
Allow up to five minutes for the sub-groups to analyze the situation, then ask them to make notes on the top half of the flip-chart sheet. Ring a bell and ask everyone to move to another flip-chart sheet.
Pass the Envelope
Give each person an envelope filled with blank slips of paper. Pose a question or challenge to the group and then ask everyone to write down as many ideas as they can within the given time frame and to put the slips into the envelope.
Tell people to pass the envelopes, either to the next person, or in all directions. When the passing stops, ask them to read the contents.
Pair off participants and get them to discuss the ideas in their envelopes.
What ideas did they receive?
What are the positives and nega­tives of each idea?
What other ideas should they add?
Combine pairs to form groups of four and ask them to further refine the content of their four envelopes into practical action plans.
Clarify the items being prioritized. For example, this may be a list of barriers from a Force Field Analysis or a list of ideas from a brainstorming exercise.
Ask participants to discuss each item:
What does it mean?
What are its strengths and weaknesses?
Allow enough discussion to ensure the participants understand the choices they will be asked to make.

Identify some criteria to guide the voting more specifically, so that people don't misunderstand the issues.
Be certain that everyone is using the same assessment criteria for placing their votes.
For example, the criteria could be one or more of the following, which should be agreed with the group before voting begins:
The lowest cost solutions
The easiest ideas to implement / complete
The first items in a logical sequence
The most important issues
The most innovative solutions
The solution which would be most important to the customer
Once the criteria are clear, there are two methods for conducting a multi-vote.
Hand out a strip of four to seven coloured dots to each person. Use slightly less dots than half the items to be sorted, in order to force people to make choices. Eg. Give out four dots to vote on 10 items.
Ask participants to put a dot on their top four choices. (Do not permit anyone to place all four dots on one choice).
When everyone has voted, count up the dots in order to identify the priorities / preferred solutions.

Method 1: Voting with Sticker Dots
Give each person points (usually 10 or 100) to dis­tribute among the items to be sorted.
Participants then place their points beside the items they wish to vote for. It is recommended that no-one should place more than half their points on a single item.
When everyone has voted, count up the points in order to identify the priorities / preferred solutions.

Method 2: Distributing Points
Force Field Analysis
Identify a topic, situation or project.
For example, computer training.

Step 1
Step 2
Help the group to state the goal. For example:
‘All staff will receive training in the new operating system in three weeks’.

Step 3
Draw a line down the center of a flip chart sheet.
Use one side to identify all of the forces (resources, skills, attitudes, etc) which will help achieve the goal. On the other side, identify all the forces that could hinder reaching the goal (barriers, problems, deficiencies, etc.)
Goal Statement:
‘All staff will receive training in the new operating system in three weeks’.
Step 4
Once all the items have been iden­tified, use a multi-voting process to determine which of the hindrances or barriers are a pri­ority for immediate problem solving.
Step 5
Address the priority barriers using an analysis which considers the variables associated with the Pros and Cons of the situation.

Finally … Let’s Build your
Individual Facilitator Toolkit
Learning Logs for Practical Sessions
Describe what happened during the practical activity you have just completed
What went well?
What might you like to improve?
Why did it go the way it went?
Knowing what you know now, would you do anything differently next time? 

If so, please outline how you would approach it next time.
Reflect on how you feel it went: 
Would you like to do it again now …?
Effective Presentations
Tips and Techniques
Before beginning work on your presentation, take a moment to define your objective as this will determine how you approach your talk
To inform
Break down your content into small pieces of factual information

Use visual slides - diagrams, graphs etc

Recap key points as you move through the presentation

Build in some interaction to maintain audience interest
To educate
Use much more interaction, constantly seeking feedback that your audience has understood

Break down your content into small pieces of factual information

Get your audience to do the thinking

Use hand-outs and worksheets
To interest and engage
Be more dynamic in presentation style

Focus on how the subject of your presentation impacts the audience

Use interactive techniques to involve the audience in the content of your presentation
How much do they know about your subject already?
What are the dynamics within the group?
What is their attention span likely to be?
What is the relevance of this information for them?
A standard approach is:
Summarize what you have covered
Deliver your main content
Outline what you are going to cover
Style relates to how we deliver a presentation. A commonly sited statistic is that people judge us on:
Body language
Tone of voice
The words we use
Body Language
The audience wants you to do well. The good news is that right from the outset, they are looking for reasons to like you and relax in your company.

Make sure everyone can hear you, by projecting your voice

Sound interested in what you're saying. Think about the parts that interest you and why - have these on your mind as you get to that part of your presentation

Emphasize certain words - mark up your notes in advance and practice your talk

Pause for effect where you want information to sink in, or to have more impact

Vary the tone and pitch of your voice

Vary the pace of your presentation

Speak more slowly, particularly when giving complex or very significant information
This is your opportunity to hook their interest and is also the point at which your audience will be paying the most attention
Structure your main content in easily digestible pieces

At key points, pause to recap, if you are covering a complex subject

Use sign posts to help the audience gauge where you are heading. Eg, Firstly, secondly, next, finally. Later we will talk about … etc

Use visual slides, to enhance your presentation, not to run it for you
Round-up by recapping what you've covered

Remind the audience why this is relevant to them

Ensure you recap on the key information you want them to take away when they walk out of the door

Invite questions
Full transcript