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# Electricity and Electric Circuits

By Riya Sinha
by

## Riya Sinha

on 31 May 2013

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#### Transcript of Electricity and Electric Circuits

By Riya Sinha Electricity and Electronic Circuits What is Electricity? Creating Electricity -Energy Transformations Electricity Electricity is the flow of moving electrons and a form of energy; electric energy. We use electricity very frequently to power t.v, hot water, air conditioning, kitchen appliances, etc. Without electricity life would be much harder. Electricity is the flow of moving electrons Electricity starts in an atom
Electrons are contained around protons and neutrons in the nucleus (center of atom)
Electrons move quickly around the protons and neutrons.
This quick movement is what makes the energy we call electric energy There are many different way of creating electricity.
Every way involves using a turbine
Turbine = a machine for producing continuous power where a wheel or rotor is made to revolve
Every instance involves changing from kinetic energy to mechanical to electricity.
Steam, fire gases, wind, and sometimes water are normally used to turn the turbines Water Turbine Wind Turbine History How it works - Electric Circuits The purpose of an electric circuit is to transport electricity between a power source and a device. Wires connect the power source to the device that is being powered. Power Source Device An example of a power source is a battery An example of a device is a lightbulb Circuits usually have an on/off switch. The off switch creates a gap in the circuit so that electrons aren't able to flow around. The on switch closes the gap so that electrons can flow around again. Demonstrations and Examples Lightning is actually just a bright flash of electricity produced by a thunderstorm. The electricity which reaches your home also travels in a circuit and the power source for your many devices is called a power plant. Electricity is already being used in Trinity School and probably almost every place on the globe every day It wasn't until the 18th century that the path to the everyday use of electrical power began to take shape.
In 1752, to prove that lightning was electrical, Benjamin Franklin flew a kite during a thunderstorm.
He tied a metal key onto the string and, as he suspected it would, electricity from the storm clouds flowed down the string, which was wet, and he received an electrical shock. Franklin was extremely lucky not to have been seriously hurt during this experiment, but he was excited to have proved his idea.
In 1879, the American inventor Thomas Edison was finally able to produce a reliable, long-lasting electric light bulb in his laboratory.
By the end of the 1880s, small electrical stations based on Edison's designs were in a number of U.S. cities. But each station was able to power only a few city blocks.
This is an example of an electric circuit.
The power source is a battery.
The device is a lightbulb.
You can see the moving electrons in the wire. Scientists have shown they can improve people's ability to perform mental arithmetic for up to six months by giving them a short course of armless electrical simulation on their scalps.

Volunteers who received rapid pulses of electrical current - equivalent to that from an AA battery - just for 20 minutes a day for five days - saw their ability to solve calculations improve by 28%.

The enhancement, which made them faster at carrying out sums and their mathematical tasks, lasted for up to six months after receiving the electrical treatment.

The researchers, who are based at the University of Oxford, believe stimulating the brain in this way could be used to help people who struggle with performing mental arithmetic.

Around a fifth of the population are thought to struggle with mental arithmetic while one in 20 suffer from dyscalculia - a learning disability involving number that is similar to dyslexia.

Dr. Roi Cohen Kadosh, a cognitive neuroscientist who led the study, he hoped to develop devices that could be used to help students in classrooms and elderly people. He said: "The amount of electricity we are applying is very small and totally painless. Most people asked us if the device was even working because they couldn't feel it.

"The current appears to enhance the neurons ability to process information by making them more efficient. We hope that these techniques will one day be used in the clinic, classrooms, and even at home to help those who struggle with certain cognitive tasks. Electrical brain boost can make you better at maths "We are looking at using stimulation with educational games to help a child who is falling behind in class or to help elderly patients."

Dr. Cohen Kadosh and his team, whose work is published in the journal of Current Biology, asked 25 students to carry out calculations and mathematical facts - such as time table - for 20 minutes each day.

Just over half of the students were given the electrical current- known as transcranial random noise stimulation - as they performed the task, while others were not.

Those that were treated with the electricity, which was applied by attaching two electrodes to their scalp, improved their in their ability to perform mental arithmetic after a five days. Citations http://www.tvakids.com/electricity/history.htm www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TGkmZo4fYE http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/10062608/Electrical-brain-boost-can-make-you-better-at-maths.html www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XXwn7DBiZ8 How does electricity power your devices at home, school, etc?
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