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Copy of THE SKILLS IN EAP AND EOP
Transcript of Copy of THE SKILLS IN EAP AND EOP
Listening and speaking
Shift from Text As a Linguistic Object (TALO) to Text As a Vehicle of Information (TAVI).
Extracting information accurately and quickly is more significant than language details.
Understanding the macrostructures comes before languages study.
Application of the information in the text is of paramount importance.
The reader first processes the language and then links the ideas to what is known.
THE PURPOSE OF READING
THE BALANCE BETWEEN SKILLS
Good reading requires language and skills.
less successful learners
fragmented approach to text
overall meaning, guessing, skipping
poor reading in L2
poor reading in L1 + inadequate knowledge of L2
The reading component of an ESP course requires a balance
between skills and language development
skills to be learnt
Using all the features of the text
Using cohesive and discourse markers
DESIGNING AND TEACHING
The reading material will
be used for a purpose
be designed to encourage the
use of good skills
have follow up language work
USING THE INFORMATION THAT HAS BEEN GATHERED
Final step in the
process of reading a text
Where the design of activities begins
Knowing what ss would do with the text and why is necessary.
EAP ss make notes or add to previous notes
EVP ss carry out an action while reading
BE ss write a response or make a telephone call
The first step for the ESP teacher is to know what kind of
tasks and processing would be associated with particular texts or information.
EXTRACTING AND RECORDING INFORMATION
highlighting relevant information on the text
extracting the information and reorganising
it and fitting it in with existing knowledge
visual and two-dimensional representations
Having determined the overall task, the individual
activities are designed to help the learner to process
the language and relate it to existing schemata.
LISTENING TO MONOLOGUE
The ability to follow monologue is particularly
important in EAP situations.
Comprehension of a lecture will involve the same two-stage process as L2 reading comprehension (processing of a language and the change to background knowledge of the topic)
MICRO SKILLS AND LANGUAGE
1. Identify the purpose and scope of monologue
2.Identify the topic of lecture and follow topic development
3. Recognise the role of discourse markers
4. Recognise key lexical items related to subject/topic
5. Deduce meanings of words from contexts
6. Recognise function of intonation to signal information structure
BOTH READING AND LISTENING…
Involve a focus on the meaning of the text
Involve a focus on making links between meaning in different parts of the text
Involve guessing the meaning of unknown words from the context and the understanding of logical connectors
The listener does not get a second chance to catch the meaning of a listening text
The reader can go over a text as often as needed until the meaning is clear
A speaker includes much more redundancy in the text,
more statements introducing and summarising the topic and more repetition.
DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF MONOLOGUES
Speed of delivery
Real time processing
Note-taking in real time
Deducing the speaker’s attitude
THE TEACHING OF LISTENING
Should the teaching material focus on the micro-skills,
building them up in an atomistic way until the student has control of each one?
Should the material adopt a task-oriented
approach in which students initially listen for
What do we use for listening practice?
-Choosing a topic, making notes and delivering a short talk
-Asking a colleague from the specific area to record a short talk on a relevant topic
-Recording discussions between academics or professionals
LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS IN ESP
SPOKEN INTERACTION IN EAP AND EOP
Situations where both listening and speaking are employed, where to say the right thing in an appropriate way requires good listening and speaking skills.
Includes the non-verbal and the verbal encouragement given to a speaker (NV physical expressions, gestures, movements)
Involves paraphrasing and summarising
It can involve speaking
It is about showing that we have been listening and understanding.
It’s a skill needed for effective spoken interaction.
-Information: detail, reasons, feelings
-Clarification: checking understanding, confirming
-Tactical: stall for time, to disturb, to show strengths and weaknesses of arguments.
-Use of the auxiliary with subject/verb inversion
-Wh- words + auxiliary + inversion
-Statements and rising intonation
-Statements + tags
In ESP a perspective based on the response the question will lead to is useful.
Three common categories of response:
Closed-response questions: lead to yes/no answers. They are a powerful means of checking information or gaining commitment.
Limited-response questions: lead to specific information and are good for obtaining details.
Open-response questions: give a wider scope to the responder and are vital for information gathering.
Did the order arrive on time?
Will you be available on the 23rd?
What was last year's turnover?
Which machine is playing up?
In what way is that a problem?
How do you see this developing?
ONE-TO-ONE SPOKEN INTERACTION
Many spoken interactions involve just two people.
abscence of body language
use of conventional phrases that are not used elsewhere
MULTI-PERSON SPOKEN INTERACTIONS
Recognising when the speaker is giving signals that s/he is ready to finish the turn.
Syntactic clues: natural semantic or grammatic break.
Phonological signal: drop in pitch
Non-verbal clues: looking around, moving papers.
Gain entry at the end of the turn
anticipate the conclusion of the turn and complete it for the speaker
Handle the turn effectively
judge how long is appropriate and to prevent interruptions
judge when a contribution will be most effective
know who will support an idea and get that support verbalised.
THE TEACHING OF SPOKEN
In ESP courses there can be a good deal of listening and speaking going on, but generally there is not specific work on listening and speaking.
Showing understanding is achieved through the use of paraphrasing , summarising and questioning
requiere the listener to be an insider
listening practice usually places the learner as an outsider
Recordings can be used to make spoken interaction tangible
Feedback should be based on mantaining and increasing confidence
spoken interactions can be treated as a process of drafting
After feedback students can repeat the interaction
KEY FEATURES OF ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Structuring: there should be a start, a middle and an end. A good end is essential, it is what remains with listeners.
The moves in the middle will depend on the type and purpose of the presentation.
Visuals: they can be very valuable if they are good and well used. There is specific spoken language associated with visual aids which will:
signal that a visual aid is coming
say what the visual represents
explain why the visual is being used
highlight what is most significant
Voice work: may include pronunciation but intonation hinders comprehension more. Phrasing, pausing, speed of delivery, volume and tone variation may need to be worked on.
Advanced signalling: helps listeners follow both the structure of the information and argument, and recognise the significance of visuals.
Oral presentations work often concentrate on stand-up, prepared talk accompanied by visuals. However, for many business people the short, impromptu presentation in a meeting is a more common event.
Strengths need highlighting and building on, positive features discussing first. Areas of improvement need concrete suggestions of ways and means of achieving it.
WHAT IS INVOLVED IN WRITTING
knowledge of genre is a key element in writting. It involves an understanding of the expectations of the discourse community and of the conventions about the structure, the language and the rhetoric of the genre
skills of planning, drafting and revising having in mind a reader.
Successful writers are those who are able to persuade readers of the validity of their arguments by using or adapting the conventions of the genre they are using while showing an awareness of the needs of the readership.
APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF WRITING
THE PRODUCT APPROACH
Refers to the concentration on the features of the actual text, the end product. Usually involves the use of a model text, which is analysed and then is used to write a similar text.
THE PROCESS APPROACH
It began as a reaction to the model-baes approch. The process approach has emphasised the idea of writing as problem-solving, with a focus on thinking and process.
Generate Ideas Select Ideas Group Ideas Order Ideas
Writing Task Draft 1 Feedback Revision Input
Draft 2 Feedback Revision Draft 3
THE SOCIAL-CONSTRUCTIONIST APPROACH
Writing is a social act in which writers have to be aware of the context in which they are writing. That context places certain constraints on what writers can write and on how they can express ideas.
Successful writing involves having an awareness of the community's values and expectations of text.
It encourages writers to consider their role as members of a discourse community and combines the strenghts of both the product and the process approaches:
Develop rethorical awareness by looking at model texts.
Prectise specific genre features
Carry out writing tasks showing awareness of the needs of individual readers and the discourse community and the purpose of writing.
Evaluate the writing through peer review or reformulation