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Ancient Greece & Rome

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Rebecca Hailstone

on 2 March 2017

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Transcript of Ancient Greece & Rome

What do you know about Greece?
What comes to mind when you think "Greece?"
- Modern or Ancient
Based on your reading last night, create a Venn Diagram of Athens and Sparta.

Use the resources on Moodle and from your notes guide to help you add more details.
Ancient Greece
Greek Olympics
Greek Philosophers
Search for Truth
Maps
Athens

Vs.
Sparta

Greek
Mythology

1. Review Map requirements on Moodle.
2. Due date on Renweb.
Greece is:
A mountainous peninsula in Mediterranean Sea
Mountains cover most of the land
-Mountains divide the land into regions

Surrounded on three sides by the sea
-What transportation did they probably use?

Linked to other societies and has access to natural resources: Timber, fertile land, precious metals

Stony land, small fertile valleys split up by small rivers
Government reflected division of land
-Small, independent communities
Simple lifestyle
Modern Usage
We see Greek Mythology in:
The symbol of medical profession

Nike - Greek goddess of victory

Apollo space program

Scorpius & Orion-constellations

Pegasus-TriStar, Mobile oil
What are
Myths?
Myths: Traditional stories about the gods

Homer & Hesiod
Main source of mythology. Their stories tell about mythical creation and explain the complex family tree of the gods.

Why?
The Greeks wanted to understand mysteries of the natural world and human nature
-love, hate, jealousy attributed to gods
-gods argued & competed, immortal
Who were they?
Lived on Mt. Olympus:
Highest mountain in Greece
~Zeus
~Hera
~Aphrodite
~Apollo
~Ares
~Artemis
~Hercules
~Pandora
~Pegasus
~Cyclops
Mythology Analysis
*Complete this activity with a partner.
Only one copy needs to be turned in per group*

1. At top of page: Write the names of the group members and the name of the deity as a title.

2. Deity's Backstory
-How were they created?
-Who are they related to?

3. Describe 3 character traits of the god or goddess.

4. Why was this deity important to the Greeks?

5. What does the Bible say about their character traits?
a. Bible passage
b. Explain the connection between the character trait and what he passage you chose says about it.
c. Is this character trait/ behavior in agreement
with the Bible?
Omnipotence of God:
1 Tim 2:5-6, Ex 20:3, Ex 20:23, Ex 23:13, Deut 6:14, Deut 11:16, Deut 13:13, Deut 18:20, Judges 2:17, Judges 10:13

Adultery:
Ex 20:14, Lev 20:10, Prov 6:32, Jer 5:7, Jer 23:14, Ez 16:38, Matt 5:28

Sexual Immorality:
1 Thes 4:3, Rom 13:13, 1 Cor 6:18, Lev 20:14, Prov 5:1, 2 Cor 12:21, Gal 5:19, Eph 5:3, Col 3:5, Jude 1:7, Rev 17:4

Greed:
Ps 10:3, Prov 11:6, Luke 12:15, Rom 1:29, Eph 4:19, Eph 5:3, 2 Pet 2:3
~Athena
~Demeter
~Dionysus
~Hades
~Hermes
~Poseidon
http://www.greekmythology.com
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/greek-mythology/videos/greek-gods
1. What is mythology?

2. What is the purpose of it?

3. Do we have anything like it in our society?

4. How should we approach mythology as Christians?
Verses to get you started
Who
: free, Greek male citizens, varied backgrounds and families and dedicated to the gods,

What
: Pentathalon-running, jumping, discus throw, wrestling, boxing, Pankration, Equestrian-horse races & chariot races

Where
: Held at Olympia

Why
: physical quality, performance of athletes, encourage good relations between cities

Prize
: Winner's name proclaimed, received palm branch and red ribbons around his head & wrists
-End of the games, name was proclaimed again along with his homeland and an olive tree wreath placed on his head

What is the goal of the Olympics today?

Why is it valuable in our society?

What can sports do for a nation?
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-modern-olympic-games
City-states:
Political units in Greece. Also called a "polis"
Agora:
Marketplace where city government was discussed
Acropolis:
Fortified hilltop

Each city-state had their own form of government
-
Monarchy
: One person rules, usually a king or queen
-
Aristocracy
: Rule by small group of noble landowning families
-
Oligarchy
: Government ruled by a few powerful people

Sparta Builds a Military State
Two kings from separate families who were involved in military & religion founded Sparta

Government Branches
Assembly, Council of Elders, Five Elected Officials
-Citizens were involved on major issues
-Elders and officials put laws into place to be voted on and ruled over courts

Social Order
-Citizens who descended from original inhabitants & ruling, landowning families
-Free Non-citizens - worked in commerce & industry
-Helots-just above slaves, worked in fields or as house servants

Daily Life
Emphasis on military, no individual expression
-Men served from 7-60 in military, lived in barracks, subject to harsh living
-Women received some military training, formal education, lived to serve Sparta above everything, and freedom
Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
Three different leaders made reforms to avoid trouble
Representative government was popular in Athens
- Moved to Democracy
Rule by the people
People directly involved in decision making

Athenian Education
Men

School began at age 7. It prepped boys to be good citizens

Subjects
Reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathematics, music, logic, public speaking


Trained athletically and had military school to prepare them to defend Athens
Women

Educated at home by female members of house

Subjects
Raising children, weaving cloth, preparing meals, managing a household

Prepare to be good wives & mothers and some learned to read & write
Vocabulary
Which city state would you like to live in?
Wars
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/pompeii
Alexander
the Great
What characteristics are valued in a good leader?
Good military leader?
What is more important to you, land or influence?

Philip Builds Macedonian Power
King Philip II: 359 B.C.:
General and politician
-Organized peasants into a well-trained army
-Defeated the Greeks at Chaeronea, ended Greek independence
Greece was under control of foreign powers
-Dreamed of conquering the Persian empire
336 B.C.
: Assassinated at his daughter's wedding before his dream was realized.
Alexander takes the throne with the help of his mother Olympias.
Alexander's Life
Student of Aristotle:
Learned about science, geography, & literature
-Commanded troops by age 20
-Stopped resistance in Greece

Defeated Persians at Granicus River
-Alexander outnumbered-broke through weak point, took Anatolia

Darius offered land west of the Euphrates
Alexander announced plan to attack all Persian Empire
Egypt - Crowned as Pharaoh
-Founded Alexandria at mouth of the Nile
Took Babylon, Susa & Persepolis
-Burned Persepolis
Alexander's Legacy
Unchallenged ruler of South West Asia
Wanted more territory
Blood lust for Darius III
Conquered remote Asian provinces of Persia
-Found Darius III dead by Caspian Sea and continued East for 3 years
Goal: Reach the farthest end of continent
Defeated an Indian army at Indus Valley
Continued for 200 miles
Army losing morale-turned back
Babylon: Plans to organize and unify empire
-New cities, roads & conquer Arabia
Contracted malaria and died 3 days later
Three rulers rose up:

Antigonus:
King of Macedonia & took control of Greek city-states

Ptolemy
: Took Egypt, became Pharaoh & started a dynasty

Seleucus
: Took most of older Persian Empire
Fought Chandragupta Maurya and lost. Mauryan Dynasty begins in India.
Philosophy:
"love of wisdom"
Based thinking on two assumptions:
1. The Universe: Orderly & subject to absolute & unchanging laws
2. People can understand laws through logic & reason

Sophists:
Questioned beliefs & ideas about justice & other traditional values
"man is the measure of all things" and there are no universal truths

Socrates:
Believed in absolute truth & justice, & encouraged Greeks to question themselves & moral character
Put on trial and condemned to death

Plato
: Student of Socrates
Wrote The Republic: Vision of perfectly governed society
-All citizens in 3 groups: farmers & artisans, warriors, and ruling class

Aristotle
: Student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great
Questioned nature of the world & human belief, thought & knowledge
Invented method for arguing according to rules of logic
-Formed basis of scientific method

Sparta declared war on Athens
-Resent Delian League dominance

Peloponnesian War 431 B.C. - 404 B.C.
-Athens-strong navy, Sparta-strong army
Sparta was inland, Athens on the coast
-Sparta invaded, burned Athen's food supply.
-Athens allowed countryside people to move into the city.
Overcrowding > plague > death of 1/3 of population
Spartan victory in 404 B.C. after aligning with Persians to capture Athens
Athens lost their fleet, power, wealth, and empire, but they were not destroyed totally.

-King Xerxes led Persian army against Greeks
Xerxes invaded Eastern coast of Greece
-Narrow pass at Thermopylae
300 Spartans held off Persian army for 3 days and all Spartans were killed. ***

Persians went on to burn Athens, but the people had evacuated
Themistocles: Led Athenian naval fleet which defeated 1/3 Persian warships
Greek ships had underwater battering rams that helped sink the ships.

Persians retreated and Xerxes watched his fleet sink. Fighting continued but the Greeks took a more offensive position against the Persians.

Xerxes
http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2013/04/24/Thermopylae-and-the-Book-of-Esther.aspx#Article

Choose a recent event that you think historians will write about 100 years from now. Write a paragraph explaining the importance of this event.
Review the Prezi on the Persian Empire
-Persian Empire versus Greek Empire
Resented Persian rule, and Ionian Greeks rebelled in 499 B.C.
Athens supported them - sent ships
- Persians crushed the rebellion. Darius kept his heat fire anger stoked by constant reminders of the rebellion
Sent huge naval forces to fight Athens, landing near Marathon.
-Athens asked for help but received little support

-Athens fought with foot soldiers alone and engaged in hand to hand combat.
Persians eventually retreated. Athenians celebrated but prepared for another attack by building warships.
-Darius died before renewed attacks. Xerxes, his son, took up the mantle in 480 B.C.
-Athens persuaded Sparta and other city-states to help fight when the Persians came back.
Battle at Marathon
Thermopylae
"Here they defended themselves to the last, such as still had swords using them, and the others resisting with their hands and teeth; till the barbarians who now encircled them upon every side, pverwhelmed and buried the remnant that was left beneath the shower of missile weapons."

Herodotus, The Persian Wars
Think about what you know about Spartan warriors. Would you believe this is true, or would Spartans have behaved differently?
Peloponnesian War
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/peloponnesian-war/videos/the-peloponnesian-war
What about the people?
1. In table groups, reflect on the wars.
- How were the people impacted?
- What changes in life occurred?
- What feelings would they have had?

2. Write your thoughts and ideas on the clear sheet of paper. As a group you will present to the rest of the class.
Writing
1. Go to Moodle and open The Wars document.
2. Follow one link for one of the wars and read it.
3. Using these extra details to help you, write a letter.

Pretend you were someone who lived during either war. Write a letter to a distant relative explaining the hardships, feelings and outcomes of the war.

Share how all of this affected you. Use the resources to help incorporate more details to your letter.

Unfinished letters will become homework.
However, modern historians have speculated the origin of the Trojan horse myth. The horse may instead have been a battering ram which resembled a horse, or even a siege machine (which were often given animal names.) There is also a popular belief that the horse represents an earthquake which weakened the walls surrounding Troy. This is backed up by the fact that Poseidon was seen as the god of earthquakes, and also the god of horses. Finally, it’s also been argued that the gift was instead a boat carrying a peace envoy as the terms used to describe putting the men in the horse are similar to those used to describe men embarking on a ship. Ultimately it’s unlikely that the real truth behind the myth will ever truly be ascertained and it should be treated as a classic tale, rather than a historical event.
" To the Strongest "
What do you know about the Roman Empire?
Modern or Ancient
Ancient Rome
Maps
Roman Government
1. Review Map requirements on Moodle.
2. Due date on Renweb.
Right Brain
In your assigned groups you will research a topic and create a presentation to share with the whole class.
I will provide paper and crayons, markers, etc. You will work for an hour and the whole class will have 20 minutes to present, about 4 minutes per group.

1. Research your topic. Sources on Moodle.
2. Prepare your presentation paper.
3. Prepare your order of presentation.

Topic Groups:
1. Art / Pottery
2. Architecture
3. Poetry / Drama / Music
4. Science and Technology
Right Brain
In your assigned groups you will research a topic and create a presentation to share with the whole class.
I will provide paper and crayons, markers, etc. You will work for about 40 minutes and the whole class will have 20 minutes to present, about 4 minutes per group.

1. Research your topic. Starter sources on Moodle.
2. Prepare your presentation paper.
3. Prepare your order of presentation.

Topic Groups:
1. Julius Caesar
2. Anthony, Octavian, and Cleopatra
3. Augustus and Tiberius
4. Caligula
Established 509 BC
Ruled by two Consuls
-Elected yearly
-Commanders of army
-Mostly patricians
Patricians
: Wealthy landowning families who descended from original senators

Plebeians
: Common people, farmers, merchants, majority of population

Tribunes
: Could initiate/veto legislation, protected rights of plebeians
1. How do you think a government should be run?
(Not who should run it but how to run it.)
2. What helps inform your decision about this?
Caesar Augustus
Octavian
: Great nephew of Caesar & adopted heir
He & Mark Antony took down Brutus & Cassius

Divided the power of Rome
-
Octavian
: Western provinces
-
Mark Antony:
Eastern provinces
-
Lepidus
: Africa
Dissolved as tensions grew between rulers
Octavian beat Antony & Cleopatra in Egypt at Battle of Actium

27 BC self-titled
Augustus "exalted one"
First emperor of Rome
Caesar Augustus reinstated the Republic
Secretly kept real power for himself
Brought morale back to Rome

Created Pax Romana:
Two centuries of peace & prosperity
Reforms, military victories, Roman literature, art, religion encouraged
Had military support and popularity among people
Senate made him a god
Luke 2:1-21
Culture of Pax Romana
PEACE OF ROME
Most people lived and worked in the country
Diverse cities
Major Class Differences
-Wealthy: Lived in elaborate villas, lived with excess
-Poor: Lived in wooden tenement buildings, had very little
Slaves & Captivity
-More slaves than previous civilizations ever had
Consisted of conquered people
England/Wales (then known as Britannia), Spain (Hispania), France (Gaul or Gallia), Greece (Achaea), the Middle East (Judea) and the North African coastal region.
Gods & goddesses
-Spirits in everything
-Government & religion connected deeply
Entertainment
Free games, races, battles, gladiatorial games
Think to yourself:
Who is Jesus to you?
A man who changed history?
A character from Bible stories you've grown up with?
God's perfect Son who we are supposed to be like?
Does He have a place of honor in your life?
Jesus
Luke 1:32-33
-Son of God who will reign forever in His kingdom
Luke 2:1-20
-Born in Bethlehem in a manger, visited by shepherds
Matt. 3:13-17
-Jesus baptism, identified Himself with man, although He was sinless.
-An example to followers and start of His ministry
Matt 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-13 - Jesus tempted
-No use of supernatural powers for own needs, not used to win over large crowds, no compromise with Satan
Luke 8:40-56- Miracles of Healing
-Faith healed her
Luke 15:1-32- Parable of lost sheep, coin & prodigal son
-Value and joy of true repentance

Paul
~Acts 7:58, 8:1-3- Intro
-
Sanhedrin, persecuted Christians
~9:1-19 Conversion
-
Blinded and fasted & prayed for 3 days, healed and accepted Christ
~9:20-31 Start of ministry
~13:1-43 First Missionary journey with Barnabas
~27:1-28:31 Paul's journey to Rome
~
Romans written to Roman church
-Presents the gospel and God's plan for redemption of Jew & Gentile & relationship between them
~Romans 1:1-2:1-16
~3:21-31, 5:1-21, 6:1-23, 8:26-39, 12:1-21
Jesus' Approximate Timeline:
6 BC:
Birth of Christ
26 AD:
Baptized by John
28 AD:
Chooses the 12 disciples
30 AD:
Triumphal Entry: Sunday
30 AD:
Crucifixion & Death: Friday
30 AD:
Resurrection: Sunday
Fall of Rome
Economics
Weakened by:
-Hostile tribes outside the empire
-Pirates that disrupted trade
-Reached limit of expansion and had a lack of gold & silver
Inflation: Drastic drop in the value of money and rise in prices
-Coins continually made out of less silver
Agriculture was failing
-Harvests in Italy and western Europe declined
-Overworked soil led to a shortage of food and the spread of disease

Diocletian
284 AD - Strong willed army leader
Tough, limited personal freedoms, restored order & increased strength
Split Empire into East & West
-Each part had Augustus (Senior position) and Caesar (Junior position)
-Took control of East half: Wealthier side

Doubled size of the army
Raised taxes
Set prices for certain goods
Claimed divine ancestry
Started largest persecution of the church
Retired in 305 AD
Civil war broke out

Politics & Military
Constantine
Invasion by Germania
Attila the Hun
Commanders gained power
Mercenaries were recruited by the government
-Foreign soldiers paid to fight
Lower pay than Romans
-No loyalty to Rome

Citizens lost loyalty to empire
Rome lasted 200 more yrs

Emperors came in with reforms and divided the empire in 2 parts
Took West in 312 AD and East in 324AD
Capital: Constantinople in 330AD
-Good for trade, defense, crossroads between East & West
-Protected with high walls
-Buildings modeled after Roman architecture
Center of power shifted to East
Empire divided after his death
370 AD Mongols from central Asia move to Germanic lands and people fled

Considered barbarians in Roman land
-Gaul, Spain & North Africa

410 AD Germans overran Rome: Plundered for 3 days
444 AD: Huns united under Attila
-100,000 soldiers terrorized both sides of the empire
-Attacked & plundered East then headed West
452 AD: Attacked Rome: Disease & famine kept them from conquering
-Decline of Western half of the empire
453 AD: Attila died & Huns stopped attacking Rome
-Germanic invasions continued

Last Emperor: Romulus Augustulus
-Pushed out by Germans and the West fell
Eastern half (Byzantine Empire)
-Survived & flourished
-Roman heritage remained for 1000 yrs
Emperors ruled from Constantinople

1453 AD: Empire lasted until Ottoman Turks took over
Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
Greco-Roman culture:
Mix of Greek, Hellenistic & Roman culture
Considered classical civilization
Focused on ideals of strength, performance & solidarity
Fine Arts
Sculpture
-Realism over idealism
-Used stone, used often for education
-Bas-relief/low relief - images come out from a flat background
Mosaic
-Bright colors, pieces of stone, glass or tile, most villas had at least one
Painting
-Excelled at this
-Wealthy Romans had bright frescoes in their homes, few survive, best examples are from Pompeii
Language
Literature
-Inspired by Greeks and used their own ideas & themes
-Virgil: The Aenied to praise Rome, and Roman virtues
-History by Tacitus: Presented facts accurately
Good & bad things about Rome
Was concerned with the lack of morality
Latin: Language in the West
Official language of the Roman Catholic Church into 20th century
-Adapted into the Romance languages
Spanish, French, Italian
-Half English words have Latin roots

Architecture
Architecture built for practicality
Aqueducts
-Arch, dome, concrete used for Colosseum
-Designed to bring water into cities & towns
-Raised up on arches as necessary
Colosseum
-Built by Emperor Vespasian
Completed by sons Titus & Domitian, opened in AD 80
-All citizens came to events
-Held 45,000-50,000 people
-Made out of stone & concrete
Walls: 157 ft high, 620 ft long
Arena: 287 ft long, 180 ft wide
Roads
-Vast network of roads made from stone, concrete & sand
Connecting Rome to all parts of the empire
-Lasted in the Middle ages
Some still exist & are used today
Law
Strengthened the rights of citizens
-Should be fair & apply equally to all people
-Judges started recognizing standards of justice
Important principles developed
-All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law
-Considered innocent until proven guilty
-The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused
-A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts
-Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside
Impacted law in the Western world
Europe, United States
Christianity
Read Matthew 26:36-28:20. Record your feelings & thoughts when Jesus is in each situation.

-Garden of Gethsemane
Betrayal
-Trial
Peter's Betrayal
-Jesus or Barabbas
-Crucifixion
On the Cross
-Tomb
Opened / Jesus gone
-Resurrection
-Great Commission
What impact does knowing this information about Jesus' sacrifice, the Passover, and the connection of Roman history have on you?

Josh Garrels: Good Friday
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-rome/videos/the-fall-of-rome
Final Straws
1. Choose which reason is most responsible for why Rome fell.
2. Do research from your textbook, and use outside sources to help you support your reasoning.
3. Prepare an opening statement.
4. Give 3 details why other reasons are inferior.
5. Give 3 details why your stance is superior.
6. Prepare a closing statement.
7. Prepare a written list of speakers for each turn. Everyone must participate.
Let's Debate About It
Choose a recent event that you think historians will write about 100 years from now. Write a paragraph explaining the importance of this event.

Review the event you chose. Reflect on how individual humans were affected. Under your paragraph, write about the hardships /triumphs, feelings, and family issues / success' that developed from this event.
1. If you were a teenage girl of citizen class?
2. If you were a slave?
3. If you were a boy of citizen class?
4. If you were a young soldier?
5. If you were a very wealth person?
In groups of 3
Full transcript