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Social Psychology Presentation
Transcript of Social Psychology Presentation
Each individual is immersed in a social and cultural context; social influence instructs us, and social roles define us.
Emphasis on the social context in explaining variation in behavior. Personality Psychology: focuses on the study of individual differences, the aspects of people’s personalities that make them different from others. Examines the ways in which individuals learn about themselves and their world through their subjective experience.
Each individual exhibits a stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviors throughout their lifetime that come to form their personality traits.
Emphasis on individual differences in explaining variation in behavior. Example: You can interpret the behaviors of others around you from a social psychology perspective or a personality psychology perspective Imagine you are walking down the sidewalk to class. As you are walking a long, you see your friend on the other side of the street walking the other direction. You stop and wave. Your friend appears to look at you, and then continues to walk the other way. How do you interpret this behavior? A). Your friend is obviously a jerk, and is completely self-centered.
B). Your friend didn't see you, or possibly did not recognize you. A freshman is at a huge frat party. He feels overwhelmed, unsure about who to talk to, and how to behave so he stands off the side of the group. After the party, he concludes that he felt this way because he is shy and prefers social interactions on a smaller scale. Social Comparison Theory: this theory employs the idea that individuals learn about their own abilities and attitudes by comparing themselves to other individuals. Important Concepts in Regard to the Self in Social Psychology: Self-concept: the content of oneself, the knowledge about who we are, includes knowledge about social identity Self-Perception Theory Example: Self-Esteem Theory: this theory claims most people have a strong need to maintain a reasonably high self-esteem. The reason people view the world the way they do can often be traced to this underlying need to maintain a favorable image of themselves; given the choice between distorting the world to feel good about their selves and representing the world accurately, people often take the first option. Self-awareness: the act of thinking about oneself. Self-esteem: an individual's evaluations of their own self-worth- that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent. Example: Self-Esteem Theory A student who is worried about a difficult test goes out to the bars the night before the test. When he performs poorly on the test, he can attribute this performance on the fact that he was tired instead of attributing it to his incompetence. Self-justification: human beings have a need to justify their past, explain reasons behind their thoughts, emotions and behaviors.. This was determined by studies of hazing and fraternity membership (Aronson & Mills’ 1959, Gerard & Mathewson 1966). In different social situations we find ourselves behaving in different ways. Sometimes these behaviors are incorporated into our self-concept; other times, when these behaviors are inconsistent with our self-concept, we use self-justification, or other mechanisms to explain our behavior. If one's behavior is largely determined by the present situation, can we say that a true, stable version of oneself truly exists? Yes, human beings have the amazing cognitive capacity for memory, and this ability allows us to carry our experiences with us and apply what we remember to new situations. Without our memories, each situation we found ourselves in would appear to be novel and our behaviors would be result of our instant interpretations. Works Cited: Self-Handicapping: strategy whereby people create obstacles, or excuses for themselves so that if they perform poorly they can avoid damage to their self-esteem (Aronson et al., 2010). Conformity: a change in behavior due to the real, or imagined influence of others (Aronson et. al, 2010). Mere Exposure Effect: the more exposure we have to an object, the more apt we are to like it. Researchers examined this effect in a study of student ratings of classmates; students sitting closer to one another rated each other as more likeable than those student who sat far away (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008). Theory of Optimal Distinctiveness: this theory proposes that the social identity is a fusion of the simultaneous need to assimilate and differentiate oneself from others. When a group allows for members to distinguish themselves, while maintaining group membership, social identity and loyalty to that group will be strong (Brewer, 1991). Example: Theory of Optimal Distinctiveness Schema: mental structure that organizes our knowledge about the social world; schemas determine what info we attend to, how we interpret the info, and judgments we make and what we remember. Self-schema: information about the self, includes self-concept. Brewer, M. B. "The Social Self: On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17.5 (1991): 475-82. Print Aronson, Elliot, Timothy D. Wilson, and Robin M. Akert. Social Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. Social Identity Theory: this theory describes the tendency of individuals to define themselves and others in the terms of different group memberships. Ashforth, Blake E. and Fred Mael. Social Identity Theory and the Organization
The Academy of Management Review , Vol. 14, No. 1 (Jan., 1989), pp. 20-39 The political scene in the U.S. is dominated by two parties: the Democratic party and the Republican party. These two parties are able to rally large bodies of voters by offering group cohesiveness (qualities that bind members together) while also emphasizing diversity in the members of their party. (Aronson et al., 2010)