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Mughal Architecture

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Federica Brazzoduro

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of Mughal Architecture

Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
1530-1540 & 1555-1556
Shah Jahan
Mughal Style
Combines elements and styles of
Central Asia

Vegetative motifs
Pietra dura inlays of highly stylized geometric vines, flowers and fruits found at the lower walls of the tomb.
Abstract form
Passages from the Qur'an composed of Arabic Thuluth script on the exterior of Taj Mahal & caskets.
Used especially in plinth, minarets, gateway, mosque, jawab, and to a lesser extent, on the surface of the tomb.
Mughal architectures show a highly developed and sophisticated approach to the use of landscaping and water as an integral part of built form.
Symbol of a moving quest for identity in modern times.

A decisive contribution to the renaissance of Muslim architecture.

A conscious attempt to rediscover the main elements of Muslim history and culture, adjusting them to the 20th century.
Basic structural elements of Mughal civilization have been revitalized and integrated in the hotel forms, with:

outside-inside contrast
From outside, there is an impression of
From inside, an impression of

Highly developed and sophisticated approach to the use of landscaping and water, open spaces and gardens, light and air.

Mughal architecture aims to use and
develop local trades and crafts
, and to
stimulate the local economy

Significant and systematic
local materials
and the ability of local manufacturers and craftsmen to produce them with large labor force.

Minimum dependence on modern technology.

All work gets done on the site with entirely
domestic labor force
, primarily (80%)

The greatest of Mughal achievements in architecture and planning which have become amongst the greatest national heritage of India are to be found within the city of

Agra falls within the region where the Mughal dynasty made its greatest impact in terms of religious, social and cultural aspects.
Elaborated bracketed balconies
Fretwork, perforated screens
Use of marble
Red sand stone
Symmetry and Minarets with cupolas
Ceramic tile of Pietra Dura with carved inlaid patterns
Modern influence
Mughal Architecture in Hotels
Use of materials and resources
Present examples of Mughal application
Numerous Hotels in Agra --> Paradox
Tourists of the Agra area tend to be

Such a clientele does not give life to a hotel and does not stimulate its services and help improve them.

This situation can j
eopardize marvelous piece of architecture
and make it somehow lifeless.
The Agra Paradox
ITC Mughal Hotel, Agra
A Starwood Hotel.

ITC conceived the Mughal hotel as spiritually tied to the Mughal Dynasty.
Samode Palace, Jaipur
A 475-year-old palace, splendid example of regal

, the Palace combines the best of Indian and Mughal styles.

Taj Hotels
Wyndham Grand, Agra
Quadrilateral layouts gardens
Domes, floral moldings, cusped arches
Perforated floral screens
Use of marble, Symmetry
Red sand stone
Ceramic tile of Pietra Dura with carved inlaid patterns
Quadrilateral layouts gardens
Use of marble, Perforated screens
Red sand stone, quadrilateral layouts gardens
Symmetry, fretwork
Carved inlaid patterns
Taj Falaknuma Palace, Hiderabag
Taj Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur
A blend of
-32 meters high cupola influenced by the
- Towers inspired from
- The lavish
Art Deco style
interiors with gilt furniture and elegant artwork.

Western influences
- Custom-designed furnishings from Turkey,
- French brocades,
- Objet d’art from different corners of the globe,
- Crockery from the Nizam’s personal collection.

Mughal architecture
in the inlaid furniture from Kashmir and the garden layout.
Use of marble, Perforated screens
Quadrilateral layouts gardens
Carved inlaid patterns, marble
Turkish furniture
Taj Lake Palace, Udaipur
Cusped arches, floral motifs
Symmetry of gardens layots
Use of marble, Perforated screens
Cusped arches
White marble, cusped arches
Art Deco molding, cusped arches
Red stone, Reinassance cupola
Cusped arches, symmetry of gardens layots
White marble, Symmetry
Red sand stone, fretwork
Art Deco / Neo Classical
Quadrilateral gardens layots
The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, Mumbai
A rich blend of European and Islamic-style architecture.

Refurbishment in the late 1990s. Top floors were updated with modern furniture.
Perforated walls, floral motifs
Red sand stone, bracketed walls, dome
Cusped arches
Use of marble, floral motifs and moldings
Perforated screens, floral motifs
Symmetry, domes, fretwork
Oberoi Hotels
The Oberoi Amarvilas, Agra
The Oberoi Udaivilas, Rajasthan
The Oberoi Rajvilas, Jaipur
Tudor arch as decorative arcading.
Carved inlaid patterns as decoration.
Elaborate brakets.
Transition from stone to
Perfect mixture of Christian, Islamic, Buddhist and Jain motifs.
Architectural development:
Humayun’s Tomb
Agra Fort
Peace throughout his reign.

Known for
‘reign of marble

Introduced special quality marble.

monuments rather than powerful buildings.

Period when standard of architecture reached to the
highest degree of perfection
Red Fort
Taj Mahal
Jama Masjid

Asher, Catherine Ella Blanshard (2003). The New Cambridge History of India, Vol I:4 – Architecture of Mughal India (Hardback) (First published 1992, reprinted 2001,2003 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 368. ISBN 0-521-26728-5.

Koch, Ebba (Aug 2006). The Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra (Hardback) (First ed.). Thames & Hudson Ltd. pp. 288 pages. ISBN 0-500-34209-1.

The Aga Khan Award for Architecture, (1976). Mughal Sheraton Hotel, Agra, India. Agra, pp.1-29.

The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. (n.d.). Mughal architecture. Retrieved September 18, 2014.

Indiapicks.com, (2014). MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE. [online] Available at: http://indiapicks.com/annapurna/S_Mughal.htm [Accessed 18 Sep. 2014].

Federica Brazzoduro and Harrison Seib
Taj 51 Buckingham Suites And Residences, London
Bulgari Resort, Bali
Taj Palace, Marrakech
Inclusive ruler
150 M people, 3.2 M sq km.

Amalgam of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture.

Found in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
At the height of the Empire:
Full transcript