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The American Revolution

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Isabel Redon

on 4 January 2014

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Transcript of The American Revolution

The Thirteen Colonies
thirteen colonies
came to be in the Americas in the year of 1607, a few hundred years after being found by Christopher Columbus in 1492. The first British settlement being Jamestown did not succeed at first but later developed with the discovery of a successful business in growing and selling tobacco. Many people came to the developing colonies in the Americas to leave the growing power of
King George III
, this allowed them to pursue religious freedom and less controlled lives.
The Thirteen Colonies created were the;

The Northern Colonies - "New England":
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Conneticut
The Middle Colonies (The Bread Basket of the colonies):
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvannia, Delaware
The Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Jamestown Colony
The French and Indian War (1754-1763)

The French and Indian war
was triggered by the colonists need to expand, the growing number of indentured servants who were promised land caused conflicts to arise on the edges of each country's" territory", both claiming leadership over features of the land. Since the French were greatly outnumbered, the Indians living in this area proposed aid, hence the title of this seven year war. In the end, the war was won by the British and ended by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Though the new land could not be developed on because in order to maintain peace with the Indians, the British had to create a treaty with the Iroquois Confederation as well as create the Proclamation Line of 1763. In order to pay for the cost of the war, a war fought to gain new land, the colonists were taxed by King George III without any actual gaining. The colonist angered by this, began to pour hot tar on tax collectors and cover them with feathers, also using other methods of torture. The colonists then began to question why they didn't have any representation in British parliament though still having to pay taxes for the country, this then lead the colonists to protest for
"Taxation without Representation"
which later resulted in rebel groups to form.

The Constitutional Convention
was organized in the State House in Philadelphia in order to discuss the Articles of Confederation.
The Articles of Confederation
had been opposed by many and was deemed too weak as it gave to much power to the states. Veterans who had fought in the Revolution received paper currency that was worthless in most states. This led to
Shay's Rebellion
in 1787, lead by Daniel Shay protesting against the Articles of Confederation
The rebellion convinced representatives of each state to the throw out the Articles and write a new constitution with the idea of three branches creating
checks and balances
for each other. The three branches included;
the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial branch
, each possessing special powers balancing out each other. This idea was included in the
United States Constitution
James Madison
known as the "Father of the Constitution".
U.S. Constitution:
Articles of Confederation:
The Constitutional Convention 1787
Battles of Lexington and Concord
April 14, 1775
battles in Lexington and Concord
were the beginning of the American Revolution. They were both started as results of the
Boston Massacre
1770. For many years tension between the 13 colonies and the people within had been building up. People who were still loyal to King George III in Britain were called
and didn't mind the many soldiers in the colonies such as New England. However, the patriots were people who wanted to start a new country and separate form Britain and the King. These battles were between the colonial militiamen and the British Army. On the night of April 18th, 1775 the hundreds of troops from Britain went to Concord because they were planning to steal a militias cache of weapons. Many riders, of which included Paul Revere, warned the
of what was going to happen and the colonial militiamen began to assemble and prepare to stop the Red Coats (British) before they reached Concord. A unexpected meet between the two forces in the small colony of Lexington started the fighting. Even though the colonial militiamen were not as trained as the Red Coats they swiftly began to retreat into the forest because they were under intense fire.

Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
was organized in order to to discuss the need for a Continental Army as well as how it would be managed. George Washington of Virginia was then chosen and commissioned to lead the Continental Army, this choice was also approved by
John Adams
himself. Though the Continental Army was agreed on, a declaration of independence from the colonists could not be risked before another letter was sent to King George III, begging him yet again to change or loosen the hold he had on the colonies. King George having read the letter from the colonists, known as the "Olive Branch Petition", mocked the colonists and threatened those who had signed the petition with individual letters addressed to each. The colonists infuriated by this movement, decided that the war had already begun in places around Boston and rebel groups would unlikely back down. The Boston Massacre, the Intolerable Acts (and others), as well as the protest against "Taxation without Representation" convinced the colonists to create the
Declaration of Independence
(first draft written my
Thomas Jefferson
), the Declaration was voted for on July 2, 1776 and published or introduced to on July 4, 1776.
Thirteen Colonies:
The amount of colonies established in the Americas, 115 years after Columbus made his discovery. These colonies finally evolved into states after the preceding of the Revolution.
French and Indian War:
The French and Indian War, also called the Seven Year War, started in 1754 due to conflicts that arose in between French and British territory. The Indians living on the French land sided with the French due to the better treatment they were given. The war ended in 1763, won by the British earning them the land that was then blocked off from the colonists by the Proclamation Line of 1763.
Sugar Act:
The Sugar Act was passed by British parliament in 1764 obliging the colonists to pay a new tax on sugar which enraged them and gave the colonists another reason to rebel.
Stamp Act:
The Stamp Act was passed by the British parliament on March 22, 1765, obliging the colonists to pay a new tax on stamps which enraged them and gave the colonist another reason to rebel.
"No Taxation without Representation": A reason and idea colonist put together as British parliament taxed them as British citizens though did not give them representation in British parliament.
King George III:
Born in London on June 4, 1738 and died on January 29, 1820, George ascended to the thrown of Britain during the Seven Years War.
British Parliament
: The colonists were denied representation in British parliament even though established by the British themselves. Taxes were also applied, including the stamp and sugar act, which enraged the colonists even more.
Boston Massacre:
The Boston Massacre had occurred on March 5, 1770 when a mob of fifty citizens attacked high ranked British officers, whom were unwelcome by Boston's occupants As the riot progressed more British soldiers were sent for and shots began to randomly shoot through the crowd killing five and injuring six citizens. Both the injuries and deaths enraged the colonists and created massive drama, this event then gave the colonists a reason to rebel.
Tea Act:
The Tea Act was passed on May 10, 1773 by British parliament. It was passed in order to save the weak British East India Company from bankruptcy, but what fundamentally angered the colonists was the monopoly created on tea.
Boston Tea Party:
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773 when a group of patriots from Massachusetts protested against the monopoly on tea approved by the British parliament. 342 chests of tea were then thrown into the Boston Harbor by the group of patriots who were famously dressed as Mohawk Indians, this caused the British to close the Boston Harbor and cut off major export from other counties to the colonies.
Intolerable Acts: British parliament was furious with the colonists, they had endured through the letters and the trade boycott's but they could not and would not stand down as the colonists poured 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor. In order to punish the colonists, British parliament passed the Intolerable Acts in 1774 , also called the Coercive Acts. The intolerable Acts included the Boston Port Act which closed the Boston Harbor until the effects of the Boston Tea Party were paid, the Massachusetts Government Act which restricted democratic town meetings and changed the governors council. The other three acts included the Administration of Justice Act which protected British officials from criminal prosecution, the Quartering Act which demanded that all colonists quarter British soldiers when needed and finally the Quebec Act which allowed the Canadians more freedom in religion and government.
First Continental Congress: The First Continental Congress was held in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774. Representatives, fifty-six attended, from every colony (except Georgia) met to discuss the Intolerable Acts and how the growing feud with Britain should be dealt with. Famous leaders in the meeting included George Washington of Virginia and Samuel Adams and John Adams of Massachusetts. After their long debate the delegates decided that a letter begging for forgiveness from King George III would be the best way to deal with the feud.
Second Continental Congress: Representatives from all thirteen colonies met in secret at the Pennsylvania State House on May 10, 1775 in order to discuss if a Continental Army led by George Washington, whom was approved by John Adams himself. Another letter was then sent to King George begging yet again for change, this letter is known as the "Olive Branch Petition". King George III having received this petition with the signatures from most of the delegates, then used it to threaten all of the representatives, leading the colonists to declare independence.
John Adams: Born October 30, 1735 and died July 4, 1826, John Adams was an important figure in the founding of the U.S., earning him the name of "Founding Father" as well as earning him the position as second President of the U.S. (1797-1801).
Declaration of Independence: The Declaration of Independence was voted for on July 2, 1776 and declared and read on July 4, 1776. The Declaration was the effect of rebellion already burning in the small militia groups located in most colonies who wished to rebel, as well as the battle of Lexington and Concord which only proved that the war had already begun. The Declaration of Independence stated all that the British were restricting the colonists from doing and what the colonists had a right to do in order to live a suitable life.
Battles of Lexington and Concord, MA
: The first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, within the towns of Lexington and Concord. The battles marked the outbreak of conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in North America.
Colonists who wanted to separate from Britain and create a new country.
Colonists who did not want to separate from Britain and were loyal to the old country (Britain).
Thomas Jefferson:
An American Founding Father, the main author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. He was born April 13th, 1743 and passed away July 8, 1826.
War of Independence or (Revolutionary War):
(1775–1783) A war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies as they began to follow the path to independence.
George Washington
: Born February 22, 1732 and passed away December 14, 1799. He was the 1st President of the United States, the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He watched over the convention that created the first draft of the United States Constitution.
British Evacuation of Boston, MA:
When the British had to evacuate the Boston Harbor because they were surrounded by cannons on Bunker Hill that were set up by Henry Knox. The cannons were carried all the way from Fort Ticonderoga to Bunker Hill by men from the Continental Army.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton, NJ
: (December 1776) When Washington used the element of surprise and a good strategy to fake out the British. He created many campfires which made it look as if his men were camping out for the night to the British who made camp across the river. The British thought they would ambush in the morning because their opponents had "set up camp". This gave the Continental Army a chance to advance while it looked as if they were actually going to sleep around fires on the river bank.
French Army and Navy:
John Adams convinced the French to provide safety and fight on the patriots side during the American Revolutionary War.
Dutch Loans
: When the Dutch provided money for the Americans so that they could pay for uniforms and more weapons.
French Navy Saved:
When the French Navy was saved by the colonists spies methods developed and introduced in America by George Washington.
Valley Forge, PA:
(Winter 1777-1778) When George Washington and the Continental Army were forced to retreat into the wilderness to hide from the British for the winter. There, Washington introduced a man named Baron Von Steuben who trained, strengthened, and made real soldiers out of the used to be army of untrained, weak, but courageous men.
Battle of Yorktown, VA:
(October 1781) When the French Army, Navy, and Continental Army confronted the British soldiers and convinced them to surrender. This was the last battle of the American Revolutionary War.
Treaty of Paris 1783:
Signed on September 3, 1783, it was the document that ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other side. It was originally written by John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and a couple other men.
Battle of Saratoga, NY
: (September and October 1777) The battle of Saratoga took place in Saratoga on the Hudson River in the state of New York. The British army consisted of an average 5,000 soldiers who were mainly British with a few Canadians and Indians. By the time the British Army had surrendered the American Army had an average total of 12,000 to 14,000 militia and warriors. This battle was said to be the turning point in the Revolutionary War. This battle was when the Americans gained an upper hand in the war and were able to convince the British to surrender.
Rebellion Against Britain


War of Independence
Creating the Constitution

Articles of Confederation:
From 1777 to 1781, the Articles of Confederation where created to maintain the new Americans as well as to serve as a Constitution. The Articles, though created to not rid the people of power like British parliament had done to the colonists, did not give enough power to the central government. The Articles were then thrown out at the Constitutional Convention of 1781.
Shay's Rebellion:
From 1786 to 1787, Farmers in the area of Massachusetts protested against the debt they were given after the American Revolution. The protest, or rather series of protests were famously led by Daniel Shay, a former Captain in the Continental Army who also found himself in debt though still not completely acknowledged for the years he served.
Constitutional Convention
: On May 25, 1787, 55 delegates met in the Pennsylvania State House in order to discuss the Articles of Confederation and the political problems it was creating, also leading economic problems to arise. Some of the effects of the Articles included Shays Rebellion, protest pointing out the bad being done by the Articles themselves. In the end the Articles were thrown out and the United States Constitution was born, though only signed by 39 of the delegates.
James Madison:
James Madison born March 16, 1751, had earned the famous title as " Father of the Constitution" due to the ideas he contributed to the making of the U.S. Constitution. He created the government system we still use today, that including the Legislative, the Judicial and the Executive Branch, this lead him the become the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) . James Madison then died on June 28, 1836 in Virginia, his home state.
United States Constitution:
The United States Constitution was created on September 17, 1787 and ratified on June 21, 1788. The Constitution was and still is the structure of our government, a system devised by James Madison. It highlights the rights the people (Americans) hold over the government in the Bill of Rights and the general goals of the government are also mentioned in the Preamble.
Legislative Branch:
The Legislative branch is responsible for enacting laws, consisting of the both the Senate and the House of Representatives, together they are nicknamed Congress. The Senate includes 100 seats (2 senators per state) and the House of Representatives includes 435, each state earns Representatives depending on state size.
Executive Branch:
The Executive Branch is in charge of enforcing laws, the President being at the head of the branch. The Executive branch itself does not hold the most power yet it is able to veto or approve laws.
Judicial Branch:
The Judicial Branch is responsible for evaluating laws, declaring them "constitutional" or not. The branch consists of the Supreme Court which include Justices that serve for life.
Checks and Balances:
The three government branches were designed to keep checks and balances on each other so that one does not become too powerful. The Legislative branch has the power to impeach and approve the nominated president as well as remove Judges from the Supreme Court. The Judicial branch has the power to declare decisions from the Executive and Legislative branches unconstitutional and finally the President is able to veto congressional legislation as well as appoint Justices to the Supreme Court.
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists:
Federalists supported a strong federal government and wanted the declaration to be signed unlike the anti-federalists who did not want to ratify the constitution because there was no bill of rights.
Constitution Ratified: When the United States Constitution was signed into place. The Constitution was signed by 38 of 41 delegates present at the final days of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. The only state to not attend at the time was Rhode Island.
Three Fifths Compromise
: The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states where they agreed that three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Great Compromise
: A compromise where the small and large states reached a decision that would effect the representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. This compromise was that there would be two groups in the legislature branch. These were the senate and house of representatives.
United States Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments to the constitution, were added to the constitution in 1791 to please the Anti-Federalists.
Washington's Election:
(1788-1789) He won with 69 votes and served 2 terms. He could have served longer but being the first president, he decided to set the standards and only serve 2 terms.
Stamp and Sugar Act
Sugar Act:
The Sugar Act
was approved by British parliament in 1764 in order to pay for the French and Indian war (1754-1763) as well as other British Payments.
Stamp Act:
The Stamp Act
was approved by British parliament in 1765 in order to collect for the payment the French and Indian war (1754-1763). This included taxes on magazines, legal documents and newspaper, all things used by the colonists.
1764 & 1765
Boston Massacre
March 10, 1770
Boston Massacre
was caused by tension between the colonists and the British after the redcoats were sent to enforce the Kings rule and keep patrol through Massachusetts. As a mob of fifty citizens attacked high ranked British officials, weapons were taken out and the officials shot through the crowd in self defense killing five and injuring six citizens. This lead to major chaos and drama to spread through out the colonies, giving the colonists another reason to rebel.
"The Bloody Massacre"-engraving by Paul Revere

Battle of Saratoga, NY

September 19 and October 7, 1777
battle of Saratoga
is said to be a main turning point in the American
Revolutionary War
. On October 17th, 1777, 5,895 British and Hessian(German) troops surrendered their weapons to the Continental Army. This victory was the final point needed to convince the French Government to send over troops in the forms of an army and navy. It also convinced the
the colonists money. This battle was won by the Continental Army because of a couple reasons. George Washington's army had the upper hand in this battle. Unlike the British, they were familiar with the forest and how to use the resources around them to hide and stay hidden. Men who were good with guns also known as sharp shooters, hid in the woods and shot all of the leading officers and colonels of the British Army. The men in the British army were used to having a leader and when all of the leaders were shot, they did not know what to do. This caused them to be delayed because they had no leader which meant that they had no official plans. Also, when the colonists had to fight the redcoats they used the Native Indians Guerilla war tactics. These war tactics were when the colonists would create small groups with small amounts of arms, and would ambush, raid, sabotage or perform hit-and-run attacks on the British army.
Websites quoted/used;
On September 5 to October 26, 1774, the
First Continental Congress
was organized in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia in order to discuss the
Intolerable Acts
that had been imposed on the colonists by British parliament. The Intolerable acts, also known as the Coercive Acts, consisted of the Boston Port Bill, closing the Boston Harbor until payment was given for the damages caused by the Boston Tea Party, the second was the Massachusetts Government Act, restricting town meetings as well as noting persons 21 to 70 years of age. The third was titled the Administration Act of Justice, protecting British Officials from capital offenses caused during law enforcement, the next act was named the Quartering act for it forced the colonists to quarter soldiers when in demand. Finally the fifth act, is known as the Quebec Act, prohibiting fur and land trade between the Ohio and Mississippi, the British giving it to the province of Quebec. These acts and bills enraged the colonists enough to call on the First Continental Congress, from this meeting it was then voted on that all trade with Britain and the Colonies should be cut off unless the Intolerable Acts were to be abolished and the colonists given more freedom to live in their own communities.
Fifty-six delegates from all the colonies were sent to this meeting (not including Georgia), these were representatives who had been chosen by the people and the colonial legislatures.

More about the Intolerable acts and the First Continental Congress:

First Continental Congress And the intolerable acts
September 5 to October 26, 1774
Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia
May 10, 1775
For more info on the Continental Congress and the Declarations full transcript, please visit:
Declaration of Independence
*Ignore the questions at the bottom of the video, they are not for this class.
Valley forge, PA
Winter of 1777-1778

Valley Forge
is the name of the place that
George Washington
and the Continental Army stayed in during the frigid cold winters of 1777-1778. These winters lacked hope and success for the colonies. After the British invaded Pennsylvania which was the generator of the political power and the home to the Continental Congress, the Continental Congress had to evacuate and hide again. They first hid in Lancaster and then in New York. Meanwhile, at Valley Forge, Washington appointed a man by the name of Baron Von Steuben, a homosexual and an ex-Hessian warrior to lead and train the "ragtag militia". Von Steuben showed these men to fight with many new weapons such as bayonets. He shows them how to take on the British in close fire. He showed them discipline first and made sure that they had the capability to follow the rules. Not only did he help with military training and by keeping a journal about war tactics, but he also helped return hygiene in the camp and brought a new attitude. He rebuilt the kitchen, moved the latrines away from the main camp, and reorganized the cabins a certain way (see videos for more information). He reinvented their attitude and helped them find a reason to be angry or aggressive towards the British. Although the times at Valley Forge were hard, they helped the army become reinvented and twice maybe three times as strong as before.
1st Video
2nd Video
Boston tea party
December 16, 1773
On December 16, 1773, a group of Massachusetts patriots dumped 342 chests of British tea in the Boston Harbor. This was caused by the anger at the monopoly being made on tea granted by
British parliament
to the British East India Company. The
Tea Act
of 1773, a major cause of the
Boston Tea Party
, demanded a new tax as well as force the colonists to only purchase British tea. Although the cheapest, the Act still managed to enrage the colonists. The effect of the Tea Party?The British closed the Boston Harbor from any outside trade with other countries to the colonies.
For more info, please visit:
Battle of Yorktown, VA
28th September to 19th October 1781

The Battle of Yorktown
was the final battle in the American Revolution. The French and Americans fought against the British. The battle lasted 20 days and ended with British General Charles Cornwallis' surrender on October 19, 1781. The British army had taken over Yorktown, Virginia and the Continental Army was in range to attack along with the French Army. The Continental Army and the
French Army and Navy
finally decided to attack the British. Although they did not win through full defeat, they won because the British surrendered. The document signed later after this battle was the
Treaty of Paris 1783.
Written by
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
and others.

Rebellion against Britain

The American Revolution was a very difficult time. It started off with when the
came to the Americas. The British who had come over did not know that there were other people here (The Native Indians) and wanted to expand their boundaries as far as possible. When they came to close the the Native Indians land they created conflict and caused the
Later when the
began to tax the colonists on things such as the
. When the British sent over soldiers to try and calm the colonists, there were many fights between the two groups. One of the more famous "accidents" was the
. This is one of the rare events where a colonist like
took defense against the British soldiers. Once the British realized they had regained most control on the colonists they sent more taxes to be collected such as the
. This caused the colonists to throw "fits" and rebel through actions such as the
did not preside over the
or the
but he contributed many of the ideas to the group. For example, he asked Thomas Jefferson to write the
. (The Draft of the Declaration of Independence http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/congress.htm)
War of independence
was a time period where the colonists did not agree on anything. There were two main groups. The
and the
. There were a couple important "white, rich men" who all believed that "All men are created equal". These men were
(along with others such as
). George Washington was the Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. He lead and fought in the
and the
. The patriots spent long winter nights at
Not only was George Washington knowledgeable in warfare, but he also using the main ideas of other people, created a spy system that allowed him to transport messages in invisible ink. This
during hard times when the British were to attack. During the later battles they were helped by the

and were given
. This time period ended with the
which showed that the British surrendered to the Americans and the French.
Summaries of the 3 time periods
During this time period, the main goal was to establish an orderly government and system to run America by. The First Continental Congress created the
. These articles did not work and caused events such as
. During the
and the Second Continental Congress, the
was created and drafted by the "Father of the Constitution" also known as
Within this constitution were three branches. These branches were the
and the
branches. The branches were put in place to keep the government under control through
. After the
and the
resolved all of their problems that concerned the constitution such as the
and set into place. Along with creating a new country came the responsibility of creating a government and a president. Some of the major events that happened that concerned the President and voting were the
and the
As the beginning of a new country was started new ideas blossomed with it. One of these ideas was the idea of having a President preside over the country with a government instead of a king. The first man to become President was George Washington.
is one of the most important historical events to this country because it set the standards for Presidents to come.
Creating the constitution

Passed in 1774
The American Revolution
An Interactive Timeline
Isabel Frandsen and Lilou Redon-Gabel
where you can learn more!!!
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Full transcript