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Infectious Disease Summary

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by

Wilson Redman

on 8 November 2016

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Transcript of Infectious Disease Summary

History of Anthrax
Anthrax is believed to have originated in 700 B.C in Egypt and Mesopotamia

Another possible theory about the origin of anthrax is that it may have been what is known as the "Fifth plague of Egypt" in the Old Testament which is characterized by the sickness of horses, cows, sheep, and camels

The first clinical descriptions of anthrax occurred in 1752
Causes of Anthrax
The way anthrax is formed is by the production of spores from the bacteria B. anthracis

- When a human is infected with anthrax it is usually caused by exposure to animals who have come in contact with the disease or contact with their hides

- Anthrax can also be caused by direct inhalation of the disease

-Animal cases of anthrax are almost always fatal, however humans may survive it but immediate medical action must be taken

- In 2009 a New York drum maker named Fernando Gomez actually caught anthrax by making drums from contaminated animal hides
Symptoms of Anthrax
There are 3 different types of anthrax and they each have different symptoms
Mechanisms of Transmission
-Cutaneous anthrax is transmitted by direct contact with a contaminated object or subject

-Cutaneous anthrax is the most common form of anthrax and accounts for 95% of all anthrax infections, and it is the least dangerous form

-Gastrointestinal anthrax is transmitted when someone eats raw or uncooked meat from an animal contaminated with anthrax

-With gastrointestinal the anthrax starts in the throat then begins to infect the esophagus, stomach, and intestines

-Inhalation anthrax occurs when someone inhales anthrax through the mouth or nose
-Inhalation anthrax starts in the lymph nodes of the lungs and spreads to the rest of the body

Mortality Rate
Without antibiotics: pulmonary anthrax can be over 80% mortality rate

gastrointestinal can be between 25% and 75% mortality rates, and 20% mortality rate for cutaneous anthrax.

Cutaneous anthrax is the only type that can usually be treated, and when it is, it is mostly successful, there is a less than 1% mortality rate with antibiotics.

There is a vaccine though. Five people died in the 2001 terrorist attacks on the US, and there are no records of death anywhere else due to its infection parameters and unreliable reporting of incidents
Areas of the World Affected by Anthrax
Common areas (although not much information has been collected in this area of geographic locations of anthrax) have been Central America, the Andean region of South America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Central, South, East, and Southeast Asia.

Most infections are of cattle and other large animals since the spores can easily attach. The US is also an area of the world affected but anthrax is not usually found in the United States.
Sources
Sources for topics 1-4

Cdc.gov
Mayoclinic.org
www.telegraph.co.uk

Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUZ9ULrH9Q
Infectious Disease Summary: Anthrax
By: Mr. Riney, Mr. Soards, Mr. Thegreat, and Mr. Redman
In 1977, scientist Robert Koch studied Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that became anthrax

In 1881, Louis Pasteur created the vaccine for anthrax after performing an extensive study

Pasteur injected two rounds of anthrax vaccine into 25 farm animals. After he did this he injected anthrax into 25 more animals who had not been vaccinated

The results were perfect, all of the animals Pasteur injected survived while the 25 animals he did not inject died
Cutaneous: happens when your skin comes in direct contact with the anthrax; the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax start off as a small bump or rash, but quickly transition to a blister, then to a large skin ulcer with a large black spot in the middle
Gastrointestinal: this type of anthrax happens when you ingest products from a contaminated animal or host; the symptoms of this type are nausea, loss of appetite, fever, swelling of neck, bloody diarrhea, and sever abdominal pain
Inhalation: inhalation anthrax is transmitted by directly inhaling the anthrax; it's symptoms include cold symptoms, sore throat, fever, achy muscles, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, shaking, chills, and vomiting
cutaneous
gastrointestinal
inhalation
Incubation Period
Incubation for cutaneous anthrax, which is anthrax that has infected an organism through the skin, usually takes one day

For pulmonary anthrax, it takes 1-7 days, in concentrated spores of delayed anthrax it can take up to 60 days, observing through mass exposure in 2001.

Gastrointestinal anthrax can be anywhere from 15 hours to five days, although 2-5 days is the usual time it takes.

Anthrax affects people in time ranging from days to weeks depending on specific conditions
Treatments/Cures
Most common ways to treat anthrax:
Antibiotics that are prescribed to this disease can be penicillin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin
Inhalation Anthrax:
-Is treated with the antibiotic (ciprofloxacin)
-Humans are also given an IV (intravenously)
Cutaneous Anthrax:
- Treated with antibiotics taken by mouth for usually 7-10 days
-Doxycycline and ciprofloxacin are most commonly used forn this type
Gastrointestinal Anthrax
-This form of anthrax is more rare in humans, but it is more harmful to the people who get it; however it can be treated with anibiotics
Does a Vaccine for Anthrax Exist?
-A vaccine for anthrax does exist however only patients with high risk of infection receive them
- Only a limited amount of people are receiving theses because serious side effects can occur
Prognosis
- When treated cutaneous anthrax is likely to get better
- 20% of the people who are not treated will most likely die if the anthrax gets into their blood
- Without treating gastrointestinal anthrax more than half of the people infected will die
-However with proper treatment 60% survive gastrointestinal anthrax
Important People Associated with Anthrax
1843-1910

-Studied
Bacillus anthracis
, the bacterium that causes Anthrax

-Found out that bacteria formed spores and were able to survive for very long periods of time in many different kinds of environments

-Decided to use Anthrax bacteria in one of his experiments

-In his experiment, he isolated and grew
Bacillus anthracis
in pure culture and injected animals with it

-He was also able to determine the life cycle of Anthrax bacteria
Robert Koch
-French chemist: 1822-1895

-Took Koch's work a step further, trying to fully prove how anthrax was spread and how it made animals or people sick

-Also worked to create a vaccine for anthrax
Louis Pasteur
Max Sterne

-In 1937 he created the anthrax live spore vaccine for animals; his vaccine is still used in many countries today

-Because of the decrease of the number of animals with anthrax, the number of cases of anthrax in humans declined

-This decline was so significant that during the entire 20th century there were only 18 cases of Inhalation Anthrax in the United States
Unusual Facts
Certain Jobs Increase People's Chances of Getting Anthrax

-There are certain activities that can put some humans at greater risk of exposure than others

-Usually, people don't get Anthrax without doing something that exposes them to the disease

-Some of these fields of labor where humans are more exposed to this disease are people who handle animal products, veterinarians, livestock producers, laboratory professionals, and military personnel that may be exposed to bioterrorism
Anthrax in Warfare

-Anthrax is the more likely to be used in a biological attack than any other disease

-This is because it only takes a little amount of this disease to effect a substantial number of humans

-It can be simply engineered to be drug-resistant and takes a small amount time and money to be grown
Sources for topics 5-7

http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/anthrax/technical.html

http://www.sfcdcp.org/anthrax.html

http://www.infectionlandscapes.org/2013/08/anthrax.html

https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/




Sources for topics 8-10

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001325.htm

http://infotrac.galegroup.com/default/loui7274?cause=http%3A%2F%2Fic.galegroup.com%2Fic%2Fscic%2FReferenceDetailsPage%2FReferenceDetailsWindow%3FdisableHighlighting%3Dtrue%26displayGroupName%3DReference%26currPage%3D%26scanId%3D%26query%3D%26source%3D%26search_within_results%3D%26p%3DSCIC%26mode%3Dview%26catId%3DGALE%257C00000000MWRW%26u%3Dloui7274%26limiter%3D%26display-query%3D%26displayGroups%3D%26contentModules%3D%26action%3De%26sortBy%3D%26documentId%3DGALE%257CCV2644030124%26windowstate%3Dnormal%26activityType%3D%26failOverType%3D%26commentary%3D%26authCount%3D1&cont=&sev=temp&sserv=no&type=session

http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/types/gastrointestinal.html

http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/resources/history/index.html

http://www.biography.com/people/louis-pasteur-9434402

http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/naturalanthrax.html

https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/anthrax/disease_rec.html

http://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/basics/types/inhalation.html

Video Links:

http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=anthrax+and+bioterrosism+video&&view=detail&mid=0984AF0A7A1CB656C8CE0984AF0A7A1CB656C8CE&FORM=VRDGAR

www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXdbQ1JkX7c
Contributions
Wilson Redman: Loremaster

Lloyd Soards: Topics 1-4

Charlie Thegreat: Topics 5-7

Jackson Riney: Topics 8-10
Full transcript