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The Roaring Twenties
Transcript of The Roaring Twenties
After WWI, many European countries were weak and vulnerable which made them an easy target for dictators. They would promise these countries economic stability and jobs. Some of these dictators did not immediately
Italy - Benito Mussolini (Italian Fascist Movement, 1919)
Russia - Bolsheviks
Germany - Adolf Hitler (National Socialist German Workers' Party, 1921)
Fear of Radicalism
Americans feared that communism would make it's way into America. People were arrested, deported, and wrongly accused of being communists during this time of fear.
This time of fear was known as the "Red Scare." ("Reds" was the nickname for communists).
Anarchists were people who believed in no laws and no government.
If the US government suspected someone to be a communist, they might arrest them, raid their home/business, deport them, or seize records to look for connections to communists.
Fear of Radicalism
After WWI, many countries were being taken over by communism and fascism.
The difference between these is:
Fascism emphasizes national concerns at the expense of the individual; usually run by a dictator and resistance is met with violence.
Communism focuses on discouraging individual ownership and encouraging government ownership; also usually run by a dictator.
Fear of Radicalism - Sacco & Vanzetti Trial
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were both Italian-born immigrants that were also both anarchists.
They were accused of robbing two American Express workers (picked up money from a shoe store) and then murdering the two men.
The evidence was not completely bulletproof and there was a lot of room for doubt.
Despite the evidence not being substantial, they were both found guilty and sentenced to death. They were executed on August 23, 1920.
Fear of Radicalism - Scopes Monkey Trial
A Biology teacher from Dayton, Tennessee was accused of violating the state's Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach evolution.
Scopes was found guilty, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality and never brought back to trial.
Because of all the fear of radicals in America at the time, this creation-evolution controversy was a huge case and drew national attention.
During WWI, we talked about the War Labor Board granting 8 hour work days to laborers so that they wouldn't go on strike; they needed everyone happy so they could produce war materials.
After the war, prices in the nation started to rise and laborers demanded more pay to keep up with these rising prices.
Workers went on strike to get more pay and to form labor untions
Time of Turmoil
What does "turmoil" mean? Why do you think this was called a time of turmoil?
Time of Turmoil
Factory owner's began to use propaganda against the strikers putting a newspaper that these strikers were, "Red agitators." After being labeled as communists, they lost all of the public support they needed. They were forced to stop striking.
In 1919, police officers in Boston also went on strike demanding the right to form a union. Calvin Coolidge (Massachusetts' governor) took a stand against the striking officers. Eventually when the strike collapsed, the entire Boston police force was fired.
A. Phillip Randolph started the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Randolph, along with others in this group, was African American an worked for the Pullman Company. They were treated poorly and made very low wages. This group continued to gain support from middle-class African Americans.
During WWI, about 500,000 African Americans left the South for jobs in the North. Once the war ended, whites resented African Americans because they felt they were competing for jobs.
In 1919, racial tension was at a high. In the South, about 70 African Americans were lynched. In Chicago, a riot broke out that lasted 2 weeks. It left 15 whites and 23 African Americans dead, and more than 500 people injured.
One famous African American that made a significant impact at this time was Marcus Garvey. He started the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914. This was made to promote racial unity and pride.