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Unit 1 Renaissance & Reformation
Transcript of Unit 1 Renaissance & Reformation
Lorenzo de Medici
Unit 1 Vocabulary
Leondardo da Vinci
Jan van Eyck
Renaissance & Reformation
rebirth of art, science, individuality, secularism.
Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait, 1434, oil on oak panel of 3 vertical boards
Raphael’s The School of Athens, 1509-1510, fresco in Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Michelangelo’s David, 1504, marble, Florence
Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man, 1487, pen and ink with wash over metalpoint on paper
Leonardo da Vinci's The babe in the womb, 1511, pen and ink on paper
Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512, fresco, Vatican City with detail of The Creation of Adam
Return to classics of Greece & Rome
Emphasize individual accomplishments
Writing in vernacular (everyday language)
Worldly focus (not religious)
Spend $ to improve life
Emergence of the "Renaissance Man"
Answer questions about the world
Challenges the Church
Patrons (wealthy, church) hire artists
Realistic art through perspective
Influence of Greek/Roman culture
People to Know
Wealthy family of Florence, Italy
Famous patrons of the arts
Wrote "The Courtier" describing the perfect Renaissance person. Basically a "how to book" much like
Wrote "The Prince" saying that rulers must do what is necessary to maintain rule, even if it is immoral - better to be hated than loved!
Leonardo da Vinci
painter & architect
School of Athens
St. Peter's Basilica
painter, writer, engineer, architect, mathematician, musicians, philosopher, scientist
The Last Supper, The Mona Lisa
Ideas for flying machines, canals, machine guns, and submarines.
David, Sistine Chapel, Pieta
1. Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
2. Where and how did it spread?
3. What was being reemphasized during the Renaissance?
4. Why was there discontent with the Catholic Church
5. What was the reaction to this discontent throughout the Christian world?
Network of trade routes dominated by Hanseatic League which was a confederation of merchant guilds.
Ideas spread from Italy through trade and scholars.
German Johannes Gutenberg developed printing press
More ppl can afford books
More ppl have books
Ppl learn to read
Very similar to Italian Renaissance
Popular for using symbolism in paintings
Believed in a simple life without materialistic goods
Championed Christian Humanism
Discontent with Catholic church
Wrote The Praise of Folly
Sir Thomas More
Criticizes English govt
Envisions a perfect society
Greatest English playwright
Spread Renaissance ideas to masses through plays
Huge change from religious morality from Middle Ages
Italian born writer
Focused on the role of women in society
Wrote poetry, a biography of Charles V, and works that guided women on proper morality
Championed equality and education for women
Christine de Pizan
German oil painter, print-maker, engraver, woodcutter
Melancholia I, 1514, engraving
Young Hare, 1502, watercolor
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter that focused on landscapes and domestic life.
First to use oil based paint.
Middle Ages or Renaissance?
1. What does Renaissance mean?
2. Where did the Renaissance begin?
3. What were some factors that allowed for the Renaissance to occur?
4. Name the artist:
a. School of Athens d. Vitruvian Man
b. Sistine Chapel e. David
c. Mona Lisa f. St. Peter's Basilica
5. What does it take to be a Renaissance man?
6. Who are Machiavelli and Castiglione?
Before you can reform, you have to have some problems
Church spends too much (i.e. extravagant art projects)
Corruption, abuse, immorality
People lose respect for & question the church
Church sold INDULGENCES to people to pay for art projects
People loyal to nation rather than church
Church should give up all material possessions
Preached against immorality & worldliness of Catholic Church
Martin Luther... KING
Protestant Reformation begins with Luther's
nailed to church door in Wittenberg, Germany
written in academic Latin
1. God's grace cannot be won by good works.
2. Faith alone is needed to get to Heaven.
3. Jesus Christ is the head of the church, NOT the pope!
4. People can interpet the Bible without a priest.
5. Bible is translated into German.
Reactions to Luther
Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V summons him to meet with Diet in Worms
Edict of Worms declares him an outlaw
His ideas continue to spread and by 1530, Lutheranism is official
Charles V suppresses Lutherans in Germany, but princes protest... hence,
Spread of Protestantism
pardon that reduces time in purgatory
Est. church in Switzerland with theocracy
Martin Luther accused him of tampering with word of God
Violence started when Swiss Protestants were attacked by Catholics, Zwingli dies
Preached predestination (God already knows who will be saved)
Rooted in Geneva, Switzerland
Church is mandatory
No feast, dancing, singing, jewelry
Protestant in Scotland
Lays ground for Presbyterianism
Re-baptized adults (a crime at the time)
As young king, earns title of "Defender of the Faith"
His wife only has 1 child, a girl named Mary...
but, he wants a male heir
Pope says divorce is not an option
Henry names himself head of the Church of England
and his 6 wives
Catherine of Aragon (Mary), divorced
Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth), beheaded
Jane Seymour (Edward VI), died
Ann of Cleves (no kids), divorced
Catherine Howard (no kids), beheaded
Katherine Parr (no kids), survived
1547 - Edward VI takes throne at age 9
1552 - Edward VI dies, Mary takes thrown
Mary (devout Catholic) kills Protestants "Bloody Mary"
Mary dies, Elizabeth I comes to power
Golden Age of England &
Church of England was strong
1. How did the Renaissance spread to Northern Europe?
2. When was the Renaissance?
3. Who was the main playwright of the Renaissance?
4. What was the first book printed on the printing press with movable type?
5. Language spoken by common people is called:
6. What is humanism?
7. What were the following people known for?
a. Machiavelli e. Erasmus
b. da Vinci f. Sir Thomas More
c. Medici g. Castiglione
d. Michelangelo h. Gutenberg
response to the Protestant Reformation
Preached fiery sermons against the Catholic Church
Called on the church to use gold/silver to buy bread for the hungry and poor
Led “bonfire of the vanities”
Excommunicated for spreading ideas that the pope was dangerous & executed in 1498
Society of Jesus, focused on Catholic spirituality & service
Founded by Ignatius of Loyola who ran it like a military
Emphasized discipline & obedience to the church above all
Used education to combat Protestantism
Established missions, schools, universities
Council of Trent
Began by Pope Paul III in 1545
Met on and off until 1563
Purpose was to examine criticisms made by Protestants and to clarify Catholic teachings and practices
Addressed corruption of the clergy
Addressed training of priests & financial abuse
Sale of indulgences was abolished
Rejected Protestants emphasis on self discipline & individual faith
Significance: No compromise between Protestants and Catholics
Women & the Church
Middle Ages - nuns (women devoted to the church) took care of the poor, orphaned and sick
Teresa of Avila
Followed her own regimen of fasting, prayer, & sleep
Church eventually gave her the power help reform
Her fervor, supposed visions of Christ, & spirituality inspired many to remain loyal to the Church
Church court established to counter the Reformation
Tried those accused of being witches, Protestants, or those who broke church law
Spanish Monarchy established the harsher Spanish Inquisition
Used to impose religious uniformity, prosecute Jews, Muslims, and Protestants
Tried to stamp out rebellion with An Index of Forbidden Books
People told not to read the books or they would lose their souls
Effects of the Reformations
Many factions of Christianity
Jews & Muslims viewed as heretics, forced to live in ghettos
Increase in witch hunts
Increase in nationalism
Separation of Church & State
1. What were some of the problems in the Catholic church that led to the Protestant Reformation?
2. Who started the Protestant Reformation?
3. How did Lutherans become Protestants?
4. What happened at the Diet of Worms?
5. What were the 95 Theses and where were they posted?
6. Who was Henry VIII and what did he do?
7. People who followed the Church of England were called...?
8. Which wives of Henry VIII had children?
Review of ALL Podcasts
1. Name the person:
a. Mona Lisa f. The Prince
b. Justification through faith g. Get rid of all luxuries
c. School of Athens h. Predestination
d. Wealthy Florence family i. Utopia
e. Sistine Chapel
2. People of the English Church were called _______________.
3. Where did Renaissance artists get their ideas?
4. What is fresco painting?
5. What were complaints about the Catholic church?
6. Describe some themes of the period.
7. Who sold indulgences?
8. What happened as a result of the Edict of Worms?
9. Language spoken by the common people is called _______.
Henry the Navigator
Treaty of Tordesillas
Balance of trade
Joint stock companies
St Bartholomew Day Massacre
Edict of Nantes
Why did it begin in Italy?
The lived where all the classical "STUFF" happened
Center for Trade
Feudalism never existed in Italy
Criticized the abuses of the Church in his book, Praise of Folly. Wanted reform!
Podcast 1 Questions
Podcast 2 Questions
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini
Spread of Protestantism
WRAP UP REFORMATION QUESTIONS: