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Environmental Security: Oil in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
Transcript of Environmental Security: Oil in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
Oil in the Niger Delta Alyssa Rickman and Whitney Hein Nigeria The environment intersects with security in four broad categories: 1. Environmental Scarcity - overuse and depletion of resources
2. Contested resource wealth - access to, and control over resources
3. The environmental impact of armed conflict
4. Opportunities for 'environmental peacemaking' - arise out of mutual interest for safeguarding resources Top Environmental Issues Worldwide 1. Climate Change - Green house gases
2. Energy - clean vs. dirty energy
3. Waste - landfills
4. Water - scarcity of safe water
5. Food - food insecurity, land degradation
6. Consumption - "fast consumption societies"
7. Land Management - melting ice caps, desertification, erosion, deforestation.
8. Ecosystems and endangered species 1958-1960 The region was split into to three regions to "keep the nation weak, unstable and open to the plunder of its vast oil reserves by UK companies, led by British Petroleum (BP)". Shell enters Nigeria and Independence from Britain (Mitchell, Alex (November 2011). Come the Revolution – A Memoir, p.135) 1966-1970 Military coup sparks Civil War in the Biafra region 1979 Elections bring Alhaji Shehu Shagari and the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC) is established. August 1983
1994 Shangari re-elected
Major-General Muhammed seizes power in coup
Ibrahim Babgida seizes power in coup
Military voids election when Moshood Abiola wins
Power to Interim Government
General Sani Abacha Seizes power
Moshood Abiola arrested when he proclaims himself President 1990 The Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), led by environmental rights activist Ken Saro-Wiwa, starts campaigning against Shell 2000 Several Northern states adopt Sharia Law Between 1970 and 2000 there are 7,000 reported oil spills 2001-2005 Increase in tribal, ethnic and religious violence. Over 1,000 people die in several major events 2006-2008 Militant group MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta) emerges. Like MOSOP it seeks a great share of oil wealth for the Delta's people and remediation for oil spills. They attack Shell facilities. 2009 Sharia law is made official for entire country 2010 SPDC sells some onshore fields and says it is no longer looking to Nigeria for growth. 2013 Ethnic and religious violence continues, killing over 700 people in large scale attacks and militant action. 1995 Ken Saro-Wiwa is killed Social Context Ethnic groups - Iswa, Ibo and Ogoni
The Ogoni people have been the most effected by the oil industry
Religious groups - Christians and Muslims Institutional Context Oil Companies, Nigerian Government and the Military
Police and army are employed by oil companies to protect pipelines and the oil industry in general Economic Environmental "Everyone knows that Shell was complicit" "In a country making millions, the water is undrinkable, the land unworkable and the air unbreathable" Add stuff about oil prices and going up and down Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People - MOSOP Movement of the Emancipation of the Niger Delta MEND Oil production = $600 billion since the 1960s. More than 60% of people in the region depend on the natural environment for their livelihood The Niger Delta is one of the world’s 10 most important wetland and coastal marine ecosystems Nigeria is home to the second largest mangrove forest The ingestion or inhalation of hydrocarbon directly leads to poisoning. Long term exposure can lead to cancer oil spills and waste dumping:
- damage agricultural land
- destroys crops and effects soil fertility and agricultural productivity
- people do not have access to clean water or health care
- farmers have to travel over 4 hours to find a clean water for fishing Nigeria is the world’s 6th largest oil-producing nation Nigeria is considered one of the worst cases of the ‘resource curse’ where countries filled with great oil wealth becomes one of the most impoverished nations in Africa. The people do not benefit from the multi-billion industry occurring in their backyards. Unequal distribution of wealth Illegal oil drilling Oil spills and waste dumping Environmental
Degradation The oil industry takes advantage of Nigeria's weak environmental laws and regulations. Shell owns 30% of the Shell Petroleum Development Company and the rest is owned by the national oil company, the NNPC and smaller stakeholders. Conflict Analysis Overview In southern Nigeria demographic, environmental and economic issues fuel conflict Mismanagement of natural resources has created an atmosphere of distrust in the government "Nigeria is 150 million people and the minute Nigeria becomes unstable, the West Africa sub-region will be engulfed" 1. Destruction of the environment
2. Unshared wealth Mobilized thousands. Shell requested that the demonstrators be violently repressed by the Nigerian police and army - 100s died. Ken Saro Wiwa and 8 others were arrested and hanged in 1995 Stakeholder Analysis The Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) The main oil operator of the land and resources
Failure to prevent environmental damage.
Perpetual oil spills causing mental health and emotional problems to the Nigerian people.
Specific harmful environmental techniques:
waste disposal, drilling, gas flaring, dredging, disrupting infrastructure, deforestation, and inadequate clean-up. The Nigerian government Does not fulfill its duty of protector and law enforcer.
Plagued by corruption, mismanagement, and bad governance.
Forces citizens to silence protests against environmental damage done by Shell.
Complicated relationships with the oil companies and the citizens. The local citizens Continually denied access to information and wealth.
No opportunity to express concerns without fear of death.
When opportunities come they are rarely shown adequate justice or compensation.
Militant groups are formed and they steal oil and sell it on the black market for income.
There are numerous examples of increasing violence and kidnappings. Local NGOs
a non-profit committed to the promotion of the cause of women in the Niger Delta
programs focus on education, health, and empowerment
a local NGO that works to respond to the environment, human rights, rural health,and development problems in Nigeria. From 1961 to Today 1961 - Niger Delta Development Board
1976 - Niger Delta Basin Development Authority (NBDA)
1992 - Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC)
2007 - House of Representatives Ad Hoc Committee on Niger Delta, Presidential Implementation Committee on the Clean-Up Ogoni Project, Niger Delta Peace and Conflict Resolution Committee
2008 - Ministry of Niger Delta, Revision of Petroleum Legislation Organizations developed to mitigate or solve problems of Niger Delta, but all were plagued by... Lack of Resources Stakeholder Conclusion What does this mean for Nigeria? Powerful elite not looking to solve the problem that could negatively affect them.
Conflict of interests and corruption call for a systematic change.
Unlikely that international influence will change the situation. Conflict Resolution Analysis Past and present negative solutions Failure of the government to hold oil companies accountable for pollution.
Companies paying off youth to prevent future protests.
Deployment of armed security forces to quiet the protests of the citizens by government authorities. Possible solutions - Amnesty International (2009) The Nigerian government must fully implement governance recommendations of the African Commissions on Human and People's Rights
Ensure independent and coordinated oversight of the oil companies and their impact on the environment.
Overseer must be completely neutral and have these freedoms: overhaul regulation, over-see clean up, and conduct independent reviews of oil companies. Current Solutions Principle of derivation
1.5% - 3% - 13%
dissatisfaction causes conflict
money does not get to the people
Justified Outdoor, the American Embassy, and Youth Ablaze
Obasanjo's development and military measures (2000) Umaru Yar' Adua (2009) - unconditional amnesty
weapons for development
Pro-Natura International Nigeria (PNI-N)
interactive and participatory development
Absence of good governance promotes effective community led development processes Current Solutions continued... Conflict Resolution Conclusion Positively influencing the youth
Nothing can change without good governance
Outside influences cannot solve the problem just mitigate the issues Corruption and Mismanagement Corruption is part of how the Nigerian government operates. Nigeria scored 27 out of 100 on the corruption perception index SPDC is escalating the conflict in Nigeria. The government escalates the conflict. The local people are mitigating while also escalating the conflict. Niger Delta Women's Forum The Center for Environment Human Rights and Development (CEHRD) Both NGOs are mitigating the environmental conflict in Nigeria. Thank you! E Se! Na gode! Daalu Imela! Oseko! Sosongu! Emerged in 2006
Uses kidnapping and armed attacks as a tactic to get what they want. MEND's main goals are to obtain reparation from the government for pollution and control over the wealth and oil in the Delta IN 2008 there was a 25% reduction of oil in the Niger Delta. The Government had no choice but to work with MEND, but ended up opening oil markets again. Shell pulled out of further oil development in Nigeria partially due to the violence created by MEND. Success? http://www.transparency.org/country#NGA The Nigerian government Shell Company Local NGOs Local citizens Militant Groups Oil spills and waste dumping both by big companies and black market oil are destroying the environment and in turn the livelihood and health of the people of the Niger Delta as explained by Dr. Ogom Adeyeri, Olusegun (2012) Nigerian State and the management of oil minority conflicts in the Niger Delta: A retrospective view. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations. Vol. 6(5), pp. 97-103. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJPSIR
Africa and the World (AFRICAW) “Major Problems Facing Nigeria Today” http://www.africaw.com/major-problems-facing-nigeria-today
Amnesty International “Oil industry has brought poverty and pollution to Niger Delta” 30 June 2009 http://amnesty.org
Amnesty International “Shell’s Niger Delta Pollution: The good, the bad, and the ongoing quest for justice” 1 February 2013 Conor Fortune and Audrey Gaughran http://amnesty.org
Amnesty International Nigeria Report http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AFR44/017/2009/en/e2415061-da5c-44f8-a73c a7a4766ee21d/afr440172009.ed.pdf
BBC News “Nigeria Profile” 16 January 2013 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13951696?print=true
Global Security “Nigerian – Niger Delta” http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/Nigeria-2.htmTransparency International, Nigeria. Accessed on May 7, 2013 http://www.transparency.org/country#NGA.
Unknown (2013) Nigerian Profile. BBC News, Africa. Accessed on May 2, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13951696
Unknown (2013) Timeline – Shell in Nigeria. Reuters. Accessed on May 2, 2013. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/30/shell-nigeria-lawsuit-history-idUSL5N0AZC5T20130130
Mitchell, Alex (November 2011). Come the Revolution – A Memoir, p.135
Renner, Michael (2006) Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental Security and Environmental Conflict. Institute for Environmental Security. 1-16. Accessed on May 2, 2013 http://www.envirosecurity.org/ges/inventory/IESPP_I-C_Introduction.pdf
Sara. (2013) Ten of today’s most important environmental issues. WebEcoist. Going Beyond Green. Accessed on May 2, 2013.http://webecoist.momtastic.com/2008/08/18/most-important-environmental-issues-of-today/
Ukwu, Chibunma (7 April 2013) Nigeria: Involving youths in conflict resolutions. AllAfrica.
http://allafrica.com/stories/201304080619.html?pages=2 References Poverty Exploitation by oil companies