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Transcript of Collectivisation
The aim of the reform was to convert
peasant farms into collective farms
(Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes) hence strengthening land & labor and also to increase productivity of agricultural exports, food supplies and raw
materials. NEED OF COLLECTIVIZATION The grain crisis in 1928
10 years after the revolution, the agriculture was still based on individual production. During the NEP, the free market introduced competitive prices for agricultural production. Certain wealthier peasants (kulaks) supplied most of the grain sold on the free market. Stalin decided that Kulaks had too much power over the government and economy, therefore he decided to shut down the free markets.
Due to the growing crisis Stalin was forced to expand the objectives that had been set out at the beginning of the year.
Collectivization had been encouraged since the revolution, but only really came into action at the beginning of 1930,when collectivization went from 15% to 60% The scissors crisis brought forth the need to improve the current economic imbalance where the agricultural aspect of the economy improved much faster than the industrial aspect could, creating an imbalance in the economy. This resulted in the need for higher income, which would derive from exporting agricultural goods in masses. The agriculture would derive from collectivization. B. Stalin Encounters Problems
“… By 20 February 1930, we had over-fulfilled the Five-Year Plan of collectivization by more than 10 per cent… But successes have their seamy side… People not infrequently become intoxicated by such successes, they become dizzy with success, lose all sense of proportion and the capacity to understand realities… collective farms must not be established by force. That would be foolish and reactionary. The collective- farm movement must rest on the active support of the main mass of the peasantry… We know that in a number of areas of Turkestan there have already been attempts to “overtake and outstrip” the advanced areas of the USSR by threatening to use armed force, by threatening that peasants who are not yet ready to join the collective farms will be deprived of irrigation water and manufactured goods… How could there have arisen in our midst such block-headed exercises in “socialization”, such ludicrous attempts to overleap oneself?”
From an article by Stalin in Pravda, 2 March 1930 (Found in History at source, Russia 1914-1941) Facts In many aspects, collectivization could be considered both a success and a failure (see number 12 for details) Grain in million tonnes produced rose from 73.3 to 97 between 1928 and 1937, Cattle, Sheeps and Goats (million heads) all decreased in production, cattle from 70 to 51, sheep and goats from 150 to 66. At the start of collectivization in 1930, only 23.6% of the land was being collectivized, but in 1941, 98% of the land was being collectivized. And I persuaded myself, explained to myself I mustn't give in to the weakness of pity. We were carrying out a historical necessity. We were performing our revolutionary duty. We were obtaining grain for the socialist fatherland, for the five-year plan. Some sort of rationalistic fanaticism overcame my doubts, my pangs of conscience and my simple feelings of sympathy, pity and shame... it was necessary to clench your teeth, clench your heart and carry out everything the Party and the Soviet power ordered. ...How could all this have happened? How could I have participated in it?
Lev Kopelev, The Education of a True Believer (1980) Consequences Famine: Russia underwent a great famine during the collectivization because the farmers preferred to burn their crops or hide them rather than to give them up to the Communist Officials. The worst famine occurred in the Ukraine in 1931. Since the Ukraine was known as the most fertile region and would send products to other regions of Russia, during the famine in the Ukraine, other regions suffered too. Approx. 10 million peasants died. Negative: Positive: Poorer peasants now shared the profit, their chances of having something to eat on regular bases increased (although was canceled out by the famine).
It also modernized Russia's agriculture: it went from being a medieval system to using machines and being much more efficient. Some Bolsheviks teaching peasants about the benefits of collectivization More statistics: In 1921, there were 193 VOLUNTARY collective farms, and by 1928, there were 9734 collective farms.
In 1930, 10,500 urban industrial workers were appointed chairmen of collective farms and rural soviets, and 19,400 urban workers and functionaries were sent on temporary assignment to the villages.
individual farmers had to produce 5-6.5 t of grain to the state in 1930, while collective-farm members were dismissed from this.
The collective-farm members paid taxes of 5–7 % of their income, while all other peasants paid taxes at 7–70 %.
By 10 March 1930, 65 percent of farms and 70 percent of draft animals were collectivized. Peasants protesting against Kulaks