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Cell

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by

Mel Lim

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Cell

Cell
Biochemistry
By: Mel Limboc
?
is the basic structural,
functional and
biological unit of all
known living organisms.
Cells are the smallest
unit of life that can 
replicate independently
3 main parts of the Cell:
1. Nucleus
?
is a membrane-enclosed organelle found only in eukaryotes. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules.
What are the parts of Nucleus
a. Nuclear membrane
b. Chromosomes
c. Nucleolus

a. Nuclear membrane
is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus seen in eukaryotic cells only.
?
?

a rod-like organelle, present when the cell is dividing and look like a coiled pharmacokinetic.


b.1. Chromosomes

a thread-like organelle, present when the cell is not dividing and look like a loose network
b.2. Chromatins
c. Nucleolus
is a structure found in the nucleus of cells made up of proteins and ribonucleic acids.
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2. Plasma Membrane
?
is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment and selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells.
3. Cytoplasm
?
it is composed of organelles suspended in the cytosol and inclusions.
Organelles:
structures inside the cell that have specific functions.
1. Lysosomes
2. Peroxisomes
3. Golgi apparatus
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
5. Mitochondria
6. Vacuole
7. Chloroplast
Cytosol:
gel-like semi-transparent liquid that contains the organelles inside the cell.
are considered to be nonliving components of the cell that do not possess metabolic activity and are not bounded by membranes.
Cytoplasmic inclusions:
1. Glycogen
2. Lipids
3. Pigments
Zacharias Jansen
was a Dutch spectacle-maker from Middelburg associated with the invention of the
first optical telescope
also credited for inventing the
first truly compound microscope
. However, the origin of the microscope, just like the origin of the telescope, is a matter of debate.
Introduction to Microscope and Cell
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek
was a Dutch tradesman and scientist commonly known as "
the Father of Microbiology
", and considered to be the
first microbiologist
.
Using his handcrafted microscopes, he was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms, which he originally referred to as
animalcules
, and which are now referred to as
microorganisms
. He was also the first to record microscopic observations of
muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels)
.

Robert Hooke
an English natural philosopher and he published
Micrographia
, a book describing observations made with microscopes and telescopes, as well as some original work in biology. Hooke coined the term
cell
for describing biological organisms.
#DYImicroscope
#1stmicroscope
Micrographia.pdb
Cell theory
a scientific
theory
which describes the properties of cells. This discovery is largely attributed to

Robert Hooke, thus beginning the study of cells, also known as cell biology. During the
mid-19th century, in 1838
, cell theory was formulated. This is usually credited to
Matthias Schleiden
and
Theodor Schwann
. However, many other scientist like
Rudolf Virchow
contributed to the theory.
The three principle to the cell theory are as described below:
1. All living organisms are composed
of one or more cells
2. The cell is the most basic unit of
life.
3. All cells arise from pre-existing,
living cells

Robert Brown
His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the
cell nucleus
and
cytoplasmic streaming
Lysosomes
digestive enzymes and the cell’s waste disposal and considered as the demolition site.
Golgi-apparatus
stocks of flattened sacks/ cisterns and use for packaging proteins.
Peroxisomes
an oxidaze enzyme and use for detoxification.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Soft ER and Rough ER)
is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tubes known as cisternae.
Mitochodria
they generate most of the cell's supply of  ATP, used as a source of chemical energy.
Vacuole
is a membrane vesicles-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal. It isolate materials that might be harmful
Chloroplast
are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and cells. Their main role is to conduct photosynthesis and imparts the color green to the plant.
-SER is used for lipid synthesis.
-RER is used for protein synthesis.

Ribosomes
its is strictly not an organelle, but attached to nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum forming RER and suspended to the cytosol used to synthesize proteins for the cell.
Typical organisms
Type of Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cell division
Comparison between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
bacteria, archaea
fungi, plant, animal
nucleiod
true nucleus
50S and 30S
60S and 40S
binarry fission
mitosis and
meiosis
Full transcript