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The Sun and Skin Cancer

Wellness Project
by

Casey Lovegrove

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of The Sun and Skin Cancer

The Sun and Skin Cancer Prevention Risk Factors Importance Background Family History 1.7 greater chance of developing melanoma Sun Exposure Frequent sunburns
History of severe childhood burns Physical Characteristics Fair skin
Light hair and eyes
Unusual moles Demographics Advanced age (50+)
Males > Females
Lighter skin > Darker skin Behavioral Factors Education/Awareness Sunbathing Tanning beds Socioeconomic status
General awareness
PMT-Protection Motivation Theory 224 students
Ages 18-25
State University of New York 2004 Study 25%
Never Sunbathing 37.5%
1-2 times
per month 15.2%
3+ times
per week 26.3%
0-20
minutes 21.4%
60+
minutes 75%
until
blistering Sun Exposure UV rays penetrate the dermis layer and cause damage to DNA UVB Rays UVA Rays 280-320 nm
Cause redness (erythema)
Direct structural DNA damage 320-400 nm
Penetrate deeper
Cause damage through oxidative effects, tanning, and photoaging Limit Sun
Exposure Avoid sun between
10 am and 3 pm
Consult UV index Seek Shade
Wear protective clothing--hats, sunglasses, wraps Age Gender & Skin Type Diagnosis Treatment In one study surveying college undergrads concerning tanning practices: 13% used a tanning bed once or more in the past year 33% had a sunburn in the past year Sunbathed an average of 25 times per year and used sunscreen less than 50% of the time Adolescents and young adults (ages 18-25)
are at greater risk for skin cancer Influence of culture, media, and fashion industry Tan skin viewed as attractive and athletic Less likely to use sunscreen and protective clothing Majority of melanoma cases in Caucasian men over the age of 50
48% of men practice protective behavior Greater knowledge of sun protection
More likely to use sunscreen
68% practice protective behavior More likely to use tanning beds
Make up 71% of tanning salon customers
Melanoma most common cancer for women ages 20-29 in US Women Men Pale/Light Skin Dark/Olive Skin Average Skin Type More likely to use sun protection
But also more likely to use indoor tanning devices Least likely to use sun protection
Primarily concerned with tanning Melanoma uncommon for African-Americans, Latinos, and Asians
Often more fatal Asymmetrical Shape Uneven Border Unusual Color Large Diameter Self Skin Exam Examine entire body for:
New or unusual skin markings
Changes in skin texture
Sores that won't heal
Unusual moles ABCD Test for Melanoma If you notice
moles with: Then you should consult a physician for: Physical Exam Doctor will examine skin and unusual areas
Ask when skin changes occurred
Check lymph nodes
Inquire about medical history: burns or skin cancer in family Skin Biopsy Analysis of skin sample from suspected area for melanoma cells
Shave biopsy
Punch biopsy
Incisional/excisional Non-Malignant Skin Cancers Basal Cell Carcinoma &
Squamous Cell Carcinoma:
Surgery
Sometimes cryotheraphy Malignant
Melanoma Treatment depends on stage and location Stage 0 Melanoma has not grown past epidermis
Surgical removal along with 1/2 cm radius of surrounding skin Stage 1 Wide excision of melanoma and surrounding skin
Amount of skin removal depends on thickness of melanoma Stage 2 Wide excision
Sentinel lymph node biopsy in case melanoma has spread Stage 3 Cancer has spread to lymph nodes
Lymph node dissection
Wide excision of primary tumor
Radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy Stage 4 Cancer has spread throughout body or metastasized in internal organs
Surgical removal of tumors
Radiation, chemotheraphy, targeted therapy, or new drugs Examine your skin regularly and consult your doctor if you notice anything suspicious Regularly practice
prevention methods,
like using sunscreen Early detection can make all the difference! Know the risks, especially any that may be specific to you What can you do? SPF Use Sunscreen Indicates amount of time that can be spent in the sun without burning
More protection against UVB than UVA
Broad spectrum products AAD Application Recommendations: Regular use
Broad-spectrum
SPF30
Apply liberally & uniformly
15-30 minutes before
Reapply often Why talk about it? More annual cases of skin cancer than breast, prostate, lung, and colon combined 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer during their lifetime Melanoma most common cancer in young adults Most common
form of cancer in United States Probable Causes Thinning of ozone layer, allowing more radiation to reach earth's surface Tan skin more attractive and athletic in media and fashion industry What causes skin cancer? DNA in skin cells damaged (usually sun exposure) Damage cannot be repaired, cells begin to multiply and create a tumor Most typical areas: head, face, neck, arms, hands Types of Skin Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma 80% of all skin cancer cases
Develops in basal cells
Tumors rarely metastasize Beings in squamous cells (produce keratin)
More aggressive, metastasizes quickly Malignant Melanoma Begins in pigment cells that give epidermis its color 4% of skin cancer cases
Responsible for over
75% of skin cancer deaths Lethal because it rapidly spreads to lymph nodes and other organs If detected early enough, cure rate is 95% One person dies from melanoma every hour in the United States
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