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Biology

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Gwenyth Gorfin

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of Biology

Biology
Biology is the study of life. It is the study of all living things, from people and animals, to plants, and the environment.
Purpose of Biology
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE

How do we know that something is alive?
What do all living things have in common?
ORGANIZATION OF LIVING
SYSTEMS
How are cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems organized?
CELL STRUCTURE AND ORGANELLES
Energy and Nutrition
Created by:
Gwenyth Gorfin
Nicole Rabinowitz
Linnea Corona
Briana Gil
Introduction to biology
Single Cell
Multi- cellular
THANK YOU
There are some very general rules to follow when trying to decide if something is living, dead, or nonliving. Listed here are the rules used by scientists:
- Made of cells.
- Can move
- Exhibit a high level of organization ex: organisms are made up of cells. Cells contain
organelles
. Organelles are made up of molecules.
-Obtain and use energy.
-Grow and develop.
-Reproduce and have a heredity
-Respond to their environment.
- Have a
metabolism
- Living things acquire energy (from sunlight, inorganic chemicals, or another organism), and by chemical processes use it to keep themselves alive.
- Adapt to their environment.

If something follows one or just a few of the rules listed above, it does not necessarily mean that it is living. To be considered alive, an object must exhibit all of the characteristics of living things. Sugar crystals growing on the bottom of a syrup container is a good example of a nonliving object that displays at least one criteria for living organisms.


Planet Earth is home to trillions of
organisms
(living things), including animals and plants. They are found on land, in lakes, rivers, and oceans, the arctic as well as in the air, but no organisms can survive on the sun.

What do all living things have in common?

All organisms need food for the energy required to live and grow. They all
excrete
(get rid of) waste products, and detect changes in their surroundings and respond to them. All living organisms follow a
LIFE CYCLE
of growth and development, reproduction, and death.
CELL
TISSUES
ORGANS
ORGAN SYSTEMS
LEVEL 1 -
Cells
-Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
-May serve a specific function within the organism
Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc.

LEVEL 2 -
Tissues
- Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity
Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve.

LEVEL 3 -
Organs
-Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity
Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc.

LEVEL 4 -
Organ Systems
Groups of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function for the organism.
Examples - circulatory system, nervous system and the skeletal system.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
- usually larger in size
-comparatively smaller in size
-enclosed with by a rigid cellulose cell wall in addition to a plasma membrane
-it is enclosed by a thin, flexible, plasma membrane only

-have a round and irregular shape that they can often change
-have a fixed rectangular shape that they cannot change
-plastids are usually absent
-plastids are present.
Works Cited:
"Biology Exams 4 U." Difference between Plant Cell and Animal Cell (15 Differences) ~. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2015.
-have cell walls and chloroplast.
-do not have cell walls and chloroplast
-protects cell
-give the cells a strong shape
-provide support for cell
Chloroplast (only found in plant cells)
-filled with chlorophyll
-chlorophyll creates food from solar energy for the plants and gives
plants their usual green color
(only found in plant cells)
Vacuole
-found in both plant and animal cells
but have different functions for each
-plant cells have one or two LARGE vacuoles that hold water for the cells
-vacuoles found in animal cells are numerous, small, and contain water, food, and waste.

Nucleus
-located in the center of the cell
-controls the cell's activity
Plant Cell
Mitochondria
-release energy in the form of food
-also involved in cell growth and death
-watery gel inside of a cell
-many materials are dissolved or suspended in the cytoplasm
-various organelles are found in cytoplasm
-holds cell together
-lets substances pass in
and out of the cell.
-are structures found inside the nucleus
-made up of genes that carry codes for the cell's traits and activities
Single-Celled Organisms

Amoebas, Algae, Plankton, and bacteria are single-celled organisms.
You need a microscope to see single-celled organisms.

and
Multi Celled Organisms

Living things made up of more than one cell are multi-celled organisms.
You are a multiple celled organism.

Can you think of any other multi-celled organisms?

Multi Celled Examples
Plants
Animals
Fungi

Single
Both
Multi
Complete the following diagram:

made up of only 1 cell

some have a cholorplasts, some do not
Single
Both
Multi
reproduces
a plant
eat
an animal
gets rid of waste
made up of many cells

have a higher degree of specialization where the cells work and function together to create a living organism

some have a nucleus, some do not

a microscope is needed in order to see a single- celled organism
Important Definitions

Cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two.
Adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
Amino acid

Building blocks of proteins

Cell wall

A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell

Fatty acid

A long carbon skeleton, with usually 16-18 carbons, at the end has a carboxyl group attached to a hydrocarbon

Capillary action
A process powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
Cellular respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose molecules in the presence of oxygen

Chloroplast
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
Analyze

Examine methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of (something, esp. information), typically for purposes of explanation and interpretation.


Enzyme
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.


Hydrophillic
having an affinity for water

Hydrophobic
having no affinity for water

Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

Independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

Inorganic
a chemical compound that is not considered organic

Lipid
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.


Cytoplasm/cytosol

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended; region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus

"How Do We Know That Something Is Alive?" How Do We Know That Something Is Alive? N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2015.
"Plant Cell vs Animal Cell." - Difference and Comparison. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2015.
Carbohydrates
Fruits & Vegetables
Dairy
Proteins
Fats
My Plate
Food Pyramid
How is food converted into energy?
Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins
Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are all macromolecules but with different functions.
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
The cell that is responsible for converting food into useable energy is the mitochondria. Food is digested and broken down into small molecules and nutrients that cross into the bloodstream. These molecules and nutrients include things such as glucose, a sugar molecule derived from carbohydrates. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later.
These are images of mitochondria!
Both plants and animals can be made of one cell-or millions of cells like you.

One-celled (single-celled) organisms, however, tend to be different from those with many cells.
Some single-celled creatures have a nucleus, and some do not.
Some single-celled plants have chloroplasts, but not all have stiff cell walls.
All single-celled organisms eat, get rid of wastes, and reproduce.

Carbohydrates make up the majority of the human diet and are used as immediate sources of energy. They are made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
They consist of sugars and long chains of sugars:

monosaccharides: single sugars
-glucose, fructose
disaccharides: double sugars
-lactose, maltose
polysaccharides: many sugars
-starch, cellulose
All lipids have a certain trait in common. They are all hydrophobic.
There are four types of lipids and each type have different purposes.
Steroids:
Fats (Saturated & Unsaturated):
Phospholipids:
membranes
Waxes:
structure, protection
Proteins are the most diverse group in terms of structure and function.
There are four different levels to their structure. The first level is a sequence of amino acids
Proteins have many different functions such as hormonal, structural, storage, defensive, transportation, membranous and enzymatic.
hormones, build up tissue, break down tissue
energy storage, floatation, protection, warmth

PRE-TEST

Identify the following:
- What is an organism?
- Which organelle is responsible for converting food into energy?
- What are examples of multi- cells?
- Where do you find organisms?
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