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Psychology Project

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India Harvey

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Psychology Project

Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Human Development
Middle School
High School
Also Known as the Teenage Years,
adolescence brings many physical as well as psychological changes. This rapid growth spans over a period of several years.
Emerging Adulthood:
Enduring Understanding (1): Students will understand that active citizens are able to make conscious choices to change society.

Middle school is a time where adolescents experience a multitude of changes, physically, socially, and morally. Throughout these key developmental years, children begin their transition into adulthood. A large part of this time of change, is the level of depth and the process itself of thought. As a child, one is extremely focused on themselves, and how their actions will best benefit them, only concerned with the consequences that will result from these. However, through the period of adolescence, beginning in middle school, these egocentric thoughts begin to shift to become more focused on the bigger picture. Gradually though out the early teen years, adolescents become more capable of understanding their thoughts and then in turn thinking abstractly as well as about bigger issues in society such as topics of morality, justice, truth, etc. At this point, the self-focused aspects of a child’s mind have cognitively developed to a point where they can reason hypothetically, understand different viewpoints, and therefore deduce their own opinion and reasoning on different topics. Based on this development that begins towards the end of the middle school years and throughout the later stages of adolescence, students grow mentally to a point where they have the ability to make conscious decisions based on their knowledge and reasoning. With this ability, these thoughts can lead students to make decisions that affect society as a whole. This is a key component to adolescence, as it carries through the rest of adolescence as well as the rest of one’s life.
This middle period follows the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from
a child into an adult.
From a Boy to a Man
Interesting Fact: Adolescence in Latin means "to grow up."
This process
parallels the
of a butterfly
From Cocoon to butterfly
A word that every girl and boy will have to eventually face. For girls this transition starts at ages
, while boys start at
When the process is fully complete the child's body will have reached maturity, making him or her capable of sexual reproduction.
This process begins in
middle school
Growth Spurt
Weight Gain
Breast Development
Hip growth
Deeper Voice
Muscles Develop
Broader Chest
Hair Growth
Penis Development
During adolescence a child faces
a new life crisis. They are faced with the responsibility to form an identity.
"Who am I,
and what
do I
stand for?"
The Dilemma
Peer Pressure
In Middle school children can suffer from role diffusion (running from activity to activity), with the increased likelihood of succumbing to peer pressure. They are only trying to figure out their role in the world.
#1 problem
in adolescent
The Product
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Middle School
From Peer Pressure to pointed comments, bullying peaks in middle school. Some children oppress others in order to gain superiority over others.
90% of 4th through 8th graders report being victims of bullying.
Continuing Social Pressures The Media:
Social Media:
Social Media has been hailed for its ability to connect the world, and this new technology has been adopted by teenagers and transformed into an entire new world for social interactions. According to Media Post, 75% of teens in the U.S. will use Facebook at least once a month. Obviously, an activity this time consuming will effect people's lives, so lets look at these effects, both positive and negative.
The most obvious positive effect of social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter is that they keep people connected. Whether this be with friends, parents, teachers, or even future colleges, the internet in general has become an integral method in getting information from one place to another. Another, perhaps less obvious positive effect, is the new found ability to express oneself freely, and not just about your cute kitten photos. A study by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation found that teens who get information from social networking have a belief that people should be allowed to express their opinions even if they are unpopular. This could lead to a more open world dialogue about tough problems in the future.
Some of the more problematic effects of social media come in terms of behavioral difficulties. A California University study found that frequent use of Facebook can lead to narcissistic tendencies, antisocial behavior, or even mania. Overuse of technology can lead to anxiety and depression, and using bright screens before bed can lead to sleep deprivation, which is especially bad for teenagers if they lose something they desperately need. While the safety and anonymity of the internet may lead to an expression of important opinions, it also encourages Cyber bullying, where hateful opinions can crush the lives of others. The effects of social media really depend on the person using it. One could waste time needed for doing homework, or one could connect to the world, and collaborate to solve otherwise impossible tasks.
Social Media is a basically just another platform for teenagers to learn about others and themselves, and by doing so develop socially, and start to form their own identities. This is a new world for adolescents to cut their teeth, and to begin to experience the psychological nuances of social interaction that makes us all human.
The subject of drug use or abuse in high school is an extremely touchy subject. There are wildly conflicting studies on the percentage of students using drugs, and the effects they have. Due to the fact that teenagers still have a developing brain, they are more prone to be effected in the long term, physically, emotionally, and socially. The truth is, drugs are just another choice that a teenager may take due to a pressure from society. The reason adolescents are so susceptible to pressure like this is because of the need to fit in in high school, and discover what person you are.
Most drugs target the neurotransmitters in the brain, which allow the brain to communicate with itself, so use of drugs can damage fragile neural connections. Perception altering rugs can alter developing perceptual senses, and perhaps most dangerous, repeating use of drugs can from habits that may stay with the teenager for the rest of their lives.
Although the pressure to fit in, and partake in activities may seem like they way to go, the most important thing for a developing high school student to do is to think for them self and about what kind of person you are as an individual.
Physical Development

Occurring during the ages 13-17, most teens will complete puberty, and the physical transition from childhood to adulthood will be complete. Females will reach their adult height, while males may grow until their early twenties due to puberty occurring later for males.
Cognitive development is when the thinking patterns, and one's ability to think abstractly develops. This happens throughout adolescence, however, its first few stages occur during the period of middle school.
The completion of puberty means that both males and females are physically capable of reproduction. This, combined with a developing and more mature brain leads to increased sexual urges and encounters.
Jean Piaget
came up with stages of this development, describing it as "
formal operations
The formal operation stage is the stage that begins in middle school. This is when students become able to think more abstractly, and about bigger issues than themselves, no longer being so egocentric. This stage last throughout the rest of one's life, showing that a person is continually developing cognitively.
Social Development
For the adolescent person, the goals are to from an identity, learn about where one fits in, and to try and figure who they are as an individual. As children spend less time with their parents and more times with peers and friends, the influence of peer pressure starts to heavily weigh in on decision making. This can be a positive influence that opens the teen up to new things like sports and extracurricular activities, or a negative influence that pressures the teen to fit in by any means necessary. Since forming an identity is such a large part of adolescence, and teens want to know where they fit in the world, a teen will often push away their parents in an effort to find individuality and freedom, but may become trapped by peer pressure. A teenager will often jump from clique to clique in an effort to find a group of people they relate and connect to.
Cognitive Development
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A teenager's developing brain reaches certain levels of cognitive development according to Piaget's theory. Students in high school enter the last stage, the formal-operational stage, but research shows only 30-35% of seniors fully attain this cognitive level. In this stage, symbols are being connected to abstract concepts, and things like right and wrong and morality are being questioned. In order to achieve this stage, one must discuss social issues, use hypothetical scenarios, understand broad concepts, and be able to justify one's position to others.
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How popular a one is, or how they have matured sexually, is not all that is on a teens mind. Humans in this stage are wondering not only about how the world works, but also how they are a part of it, and how they can change it.
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Physical Development
-muscles gain mass
-body fat is added (about 15 lbs)
-reach full hormonal maturity
-physically ready for sexual reproduction
-peak of health
-women hit final height around 18, males around 20-21
-eating disorders-anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating-are most common in these ages (women more than men, but men doubled in the U.s. within 10 years)
-disease deaths are low but violent related deaths are high esp. for men (National Violent Death Reporting System states violent death is highest for people ages 20 to 24)
Social Development
People in this stage of their lives try to share intimacy and find relationships that are long-term and intimate. Usually after college, the talk of marriage and children becomes prevalent. With marriage comes divorce, the unfortunate result usually happens more with people who marry young, who are too different, whose parents were divorced, or who don’t have children. . Through love and work they search for their identity and independence. Psychologists deal with social problem-solving and coping skills dealing with stressful things that have been implanted into
these young adult's lives. They strive to help them live the fullest lives that they can and reach their abilities on a day to day basis.
Cognitive Development
It is difficult to gauge where emerging adulthood begins and ends because people mature at different rates. For a majority of people, emerging adulthood occurs between late teens and mid twenties. These projected ages are completely dependent on upbringing, experiences, and maturity level. Essentially, emerging adulthood is the stage before financial independence, a stable relationship, and a secure job.
There is no formal cognitive stage to early adulthood. The essential brain growth already happened, but now knowledge is really applied and used. Continued changes happen to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex of the brain, which is responsible for judgment, planning, speaking, and moving muscles. They aren't caught up in permanent facts like kids are, but instead they are out to find careers and launch from their parents and the dependance they had for them. These ages are much different from adolescence, as they are faced with hard situations and arguments but they also gain flexibility in their thoughts and opinions on issues, and they discover more than one way to approach a problem.
1: "Adolescence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013. <>.
2: "Adolescence." Psychology Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2013. <>
3: "Everything You Wanted to Know About Puberty ." KidsHealth - the Web's most visited site about children's health. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.
4. "Puberty -- Physical Changes for Males." Doctors, Patient Care, Health Education, Medical Research | PAMF. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013. <>
5. "SparkNotes: Development: Adolescence." SparkNotes: Today's Most Popular Study Guides. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013.<>.
6. "11 Facts About Bullying | Do Something." Do Something | Largest organization for teens and social cause. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2013. <>.
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