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Transcript of Aboriginal relations
"blank paper" treaties - Aboriginals given $ for land, lost all rights to hunt, fish or trap (furthered in 1930)
1925 - Pow-wows Banned (bans cultural ceremonies - sweat lodge, sun dances)
plus, residential school system
earlier issues and destroying the Aboriginal way of life:
1951 - Indian Act Revisions: lifts bans on cultural customs and ceremonies
1960 - The Rights to Vote: Diefenbaker appoints first Aboriginal senator, gives Aboriginals the right to vote in federal elections
Aboriginal Rights Movements
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights in December 1948, Canada's government was forced to re-examine its treatment of Aboriginals for the first time.
1969 - The White Paper (Trudeau)
goal: achieve "integration and equality" with other Canadians (remove special status, traditional rights and treaty rights), dismantle dept. of Indian Affairs
considered "cultural genocide" by Native advocates
1970 - The Red Paper (Aboriginals) "Citizens Plus"
counters White Paper
argues: native people must retain distinct culture, want political and economic power at community level, demand money to spend on social services equal to rest of Canada
all Aboriginal delegation meets with government and successfully convinces them to change policies and position
Land Claims Issues
first major land cession deal signed
gives Inuit and Cree people money - $225 million - and hunting and fishing rights to land that was to be surrendered to province
Quebec government wanted large portions of land to build hydroelectric dams
James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (1975)
1982: Constitution Act
Section 25 guaranteed the rights and freedoms of ALL Aboriginal, Metis and Inuit
Section 35 recognizes and affirms all existing treaty rights
amends Indian Act, provides Indian Status to Metis, Aboriginals living off reserve land, Aboriginal women who had lost their status by marrying a non-Aboriginal man
1985: Bill C-31
Meech Lake and Charlottetown
meant to gain acceptance from Quebeckers for Canadian constitution
Aboriginals angry that it perpetuated the myth of 2 founding nations: French and English
Aboriginal Elijah Harper able to stall the legislature and Meech Lake collapses
meant to do the same, but federal gov't asked Aboriginals for input and would receive:
- recognition of Aboriginal government as third order of government (after federal, prov.)
- representation in the Senate
Accord went to public vote and was defeated.
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement - new territory created
government gives some land to Inuit for living, hunting, controlling resources
1990: Oka Crisis
Oka, Quebec - municipal leaders allow a golf course on burial grounds at a nearby reserve
angers Mohawk nation
militant faction of tribe blocks off roads to their reserve
one officer shot and killed when charging the barricades
Canadian Armed Forced called to remove barricades and stop dispute by force
expansion canceled by Oka mayor
1995: Ipperwash Crisis
Ojibway band occupied the park to assert land claim
wanted land back (had been taken in WW2 for war efforts)
violence erupts - OPP kills protester Dudley George
2003 provincial inquest - tapes surface discussing: "tried to pacify and pander to these people far too long" and to use "swift affirmative action" to remove them from the park; gov't declared racist.
2009 Ojibway band got their land back.
The REAL issues?
Why are First Nations
shows federal government's position on land claims
argues Canada shouldn't negotiate further treaties with the Native peoples (only could be signed by sovereign nations)
shows lack of respect for First Nations
no Aboriginal voice in government
16,000 FNIM children "scooped" by child welfare 1965-1985
forced to live with non-Aboriginal adoptive/foster parents
many never told about native roots
thought: improve education, escape poverty, be productive
Manitoba first province to apologize for this in 2015