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Post-Liberal Stabilization in Somalia

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Daniel Kebede

on 27 August 2015

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Transcript of Post-Liberal Stabilization in Somalia

Indigenous Knowledge & Agencies
Objective
examine the role of local knowledge and Agencies in stabilizing Somalia
Why Post-liberal?
Somali Context
Violent conflict among clans is blurred ( sometimes among units of the SNSF).

The conceptualization of stabilization influences the governance of security and statebuilding process.

Stability is conceived as freedom from any form of fear and obstruction from everyday activities of the citizens.

Introduction of Dual-Track Policies by USA and continued by neighbor states

The boundary between the state and non-state actors and values is blurred.


Post-Liberal Stabilization in Somalia: Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge and Agencie
s

Con'td
By
Daniel G. Kebede
Institute for Peace & Security Studies
Addis Ababa University
August 12, 2015

Problematizing Liberal thesis of Stabilization
Alternative Approach: Stabilizing Somalia from Below
Conclusion
con'td

Somalis local people conceptualized stabilization in terms of security and development.

Stabilization in Somalia needs to be community-driven processes rather than large-scale and highly politicized stabilization efforts that have so far proven counter-productive (Hartkorn, n.d.).

Local agencies are viewed as source of knowledge and capacity by the local communities as well as government officials

Go't is highly dependent on external forces

High international intervention and less local autonomy to the local people


is the process of establishing peace and security in conflict affected and unstable countriies through the promotion of peaceful political settlements to produce a legitimate indigenous government(UKSU, 2012)

for AU, it is a multi-dmensional process enabling the government to provide security and humanitarian services (Williams, 2012)-still liberal form with both security and development approach

rooted into addressing insecurity-underdevelopment (Ghani & Lockhart, 2008)

can't be introduced in vacuum (structural deficit)

aimed at bringing structural stability (UKSU, 2012)

Presupposes weakness of the state to control its territory and autonomy (Richmond, 2011)

Focuses on 'controlled and ordered transition' and 'normalization of military role' not emancipation and autonomy of local community



associated with failed statehood, warlordism, piracy and international terrorism
have governance without government (Menkhaus,2007)
power vacuum and subsequent fighting among local brokers for power and resources
repetitive failure of international intervention
strong and legitimate local structure than government and international actors
flawed state, founded on flawed laws and highly divided society (both clan and religion)
phantom security forces
the conflict among parties is blurred (clan+SNSF+PSC)
high involvement of the international PSC in domestic service (affilliated to warlords, former officials or Arab and western secuirty companies)
emerging based on failure of liberal peace in Somalia

to fit into the context (full of resistance and acceptance)

Which one should fit into the other?

The ideal monopoly of violence by the central state is not compatible with Somalia context (Mac Ginity, 2011)

a combination of top-down and bottom-up approach

stabilization under this apporach
designed by local socieities and furnished externally
locally owned (African Solution to African Problem)
the operation aimed at 'local space' and 'everyday'
localized form of stabilization (Dennys, 2013)

the primacy of the context over imported values or securitization of 'social space' promotes 'context-first'


refers to actors that provides security to the local people including clan, religious institution and armed government and non-government institutions
Domanance of clan and religious structures in Somalia security, politics and development (eg. Al-Islah)
local agencies are both hidden but effective (eg. Damul Jadiid)
they are highly resilient than the state
Why?
to address the underlying cause of conflict
are the basis/vehicle for statebuilding and stabilization
they political, economically and militarily dominant structures
Stabilization remains a challenge in Somalia

Clan and religion are the dominant space where state and non-state actors operate in providing security (ASWJ, Clan Militias, Clan-based PSC, Clan based SNA structure)

use of illiberal agents-warlords, clan and religious militias- to fill the security gaps

Hybridized nature of the interaction between the formal and informal actors (existence of shadow structure)

High influence from NSA especially Islamist over the community and government officials

The interplay of state and non-state power brokers for stabilization in Somalia is a duplicitous form of post-liberal governance.

Overlapping of resources among clan militia, SNA, SPF, and PSC



The complexity of local culture and politics has to be considered during stabilization intervention.

dominance of non-state actors in Somali security, politics and development

Somalis fade-up of international interventions

Localized nature of politics that needs localized stabilization

Post-liberal form of stabilization becomes a duplicitous form that lead to compromise, co-exist, and pluralism of systems and actors
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