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Media and Society
Transcript of Media and Society
World Wide Web William Gibson’s vision of new technological media was in conflict with Marshall McLuhan’s History of the Internet Development
of the Computer Military Applications The Personal Computer The Internet
the Internet The
World Wide Web The Internet
It's Users Commercialization
of the Internet Changes in the Mass Communication Process The Double Edge of
Technology Mcluhan's Renaissance Reconceptualizing Life in an
Interconnected World The Internet and Freedom of Expression Freedom of the
Press for Whom? Controlling Internet Expression Pornography
World Wide Web Media History Repeats Rating the Web Copyright
(Intellectual Property Ownership) Privacy Virtual
Democracy Cultural Forum Is Broadband Fast Food or Power? Developing Media Literacy Skills Making Our Way in an Interconnected World Living Media Literacy POP for Privacy Internet
in Egypt There are conflicting versions about the origin of the internet, but the more common story is that the net was a product of the cold war.
In another version, psychologist Joseph C.R. Licklider, foresaw linked computers creating a country of citizens “informed about, interested in, and involved in the process of government”. In the mid-1880s, the Englishman Charles Babbage produced designs for a computer that could conduct algebraic computations.
Over the next 100 years, a bunch of mechanical and electromechanical computers were attempted.
Colossus was the first electronic digital computer.
The first “full service” electronic computer is “ENIAC”, the same scientists who formed it, developed another one called “UNIVAC”, which became the first successful commercial computer. In 1957, The Soviet Union launched “Sputnik”. The Advanced Research Project Agency “ARPA” was immediately established to sponsor and coordinate sophisticated defense-related research.
In 1969, the switching network called ARPAnet, went online and became fully operational and reliable within one year.
By 1992, there were more than 1.1 million hosts-computers linking individual personal computer users to the internet. The internet at first was the province of the people who worked in businesses, schools and universities.
When the semiconductor replaced the vacuum tube in the computers, production of small affordable personal or microcomputers (PCs) was made possible.
In 1977, Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak perfected Apple II, a low-cost, easy-to-use microcomputer designed for personal rather than business use. The internet is thought as the '' Network of networks '' that is growing in an incredibly fast rate.
These networks consist of LANs, connecting two or more computers, and WANs, connecting several LANs in different locations.
As the popularity of the internet has grown, so has the number of the ISPs (Internet service providers), It is rarely an overstatement to say that computers are rarely used for computing anymore. E-mail Mailing Lists Usenet Voice Over
(VOIP) Another way of accessing files on the internet is via the World Wide Web.
The WWW uses hypertext transfer protocols files (HTTP) to transport files from one place to another.
The ease of accessing the Web is a function of a number of components: Hosts Browsers Search
Pages Internet has users not audience members. At any time or even at the same time a person may be both reading internet content and creating internet content.
It is almost impossible to tell how many users there are on the internet.
Current best estimates at least 1 billion users worldwide. Today, 80% of the American users report making online purchases.
There is a little doubt that the online world is increasingly characterized by commercialization.
The most annoying form of commercialization of the internet is spam- unsolicited commercial email. The internet changes the definition of the different components of the mass communication process.
On the internet a single individual can communicate with a large audience.
Feedback in mass communication is traditionally described as influential and delayed but online feedback very often is immediate and feedback. The solution to the Mcluhan Gibson conflict in the opening vignette is one of perspective.
Mcluhan was optimistic because he was speculating on what electronic media could do. Gibson was pessimistic because he was commenting what he had electronic media doing.
Technology can’t create new worlds. Technology is a double edged sword. It is power for – good and bad- reside inside us. Marshall Mcluhan was a Canadian English professor. His books generated heated comment and earned Mcluhan much criticism.
Two of his concepts are receiving renewed discussion because of the internet: The Global Village Media
of Our Bodies What happens to people in the global village?
How free are we to express ourselves?
What becomes of audiences and users as their senses are extended technologically?
These questions confront us as we attempt to find the right balance between the good and the bad that come from the new communication technologies. The internet raises a number of important issues of freedom of expression. There is no central location, no on or off button for the internet to control.
Internet freedom-of-expression issues, then, fall into 2 broad categories. The Net’s potential to make the First Amendment’s freedom-of-the-press guarantee a reality for greater numbers of people. The problem of setting boundaries of control. Veteran News Yorker columnist A.J libeling argued that freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one.
The Net, however, turns every user into a potential mass communicator. Equally important, on the internet every “publisher” is equal. Abuses of the Net’s freedom such as these are behind the argument for greater control of the internet.
Lies have always been part of human interaction. The Internet only gives them greater reach, there is little that government can do to control this abuse. Most efforts at controlling the internet are aimed at indecent or porno-graphic web content.
The solution seems to be in technology. Filtering software can be set to block access to web sites.
In Egypt, Several Salafi and liberal MPs have finally agreed on something; blocking pornographic sites. Proponents of a web rating system see technology, in the form of filtering software , as an appropriate solution to the need to protect children .
Rating proponents envision two forms of filtering: existing rating schemes and specific interest group ratings. Copyright protection is designed to ensure that those who create content are financially compensated for their work.
Copyright rules apply to the internet as they do to other media, but because material on the net is not tangible, it is easily, freely, and privately copied.
Another confounding issue is that new and existing material is often combined with other existing material to create even newer content.
To deal with these thorny issues, in 1998, the US congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Privacy in the global village has two facets. Protecting Privacy in Communication Protecting Privacy of Personal Information The internet is characterized by freedom and self-governance, which are also the hallmarks of true democracy.
Some critics argue that the internet will be no more of an asset to democracy than have been radio & television because the same economic & commercial forces that have been shaped the content & operation of those more traditional media will constrain just as rigidly the new. The Technology Gap The Information Gap Information, Knowledge, and Understanding Should broadband be viewed as a luxury or as a basic public utility? Should municipalities offer free or low-cost access for their citizens?
By mid-September 2005, more than 300 towns had decided that high speed, low-cost, ubiquitous community Wi-Fi should be public utility.
Finally the federal government has joined the fray. A former phone company executive introduced the Preserving Innovation in Telecom Act in May 2005, a federal ban on municipal Internet access. Media literate individuals should examine their own beliefs about the double edge of communication technologies where among the elements of media literacy are the development of an awareness of the impact of the media on individuals and an understanding of the process of mass communication.
The culture is neither innate nor inviolate. We construct culture - both dominant and bounded. Charlene Nelson, a politically conservative mother of three, made her media literacy a living enterprise and in the process made history.
Mrs. Nelson, dozens of friends and neighbors near Fargo started Protect Our Privacy (POP).
POP's website offers information on how to fight for privacy rights in your state, as well as the story of its historic victory. Internet started in Egypt in 1993 .
In 2000 ISDN service was introduced in Egypt.
Losing control over news coverage to social media, the Egyptian government decided to shut down the internet altogether on January 27, 2011.
After the revolution ended in February 2011, social networking became the new political playground.