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Transcript of Nigeria Presentation
10% Indigenous Religion Interpersonal Relations Culture, Customs, and Values Holidays similar to the United States:
(Christians) Holidays May 1st
Based off of American Labor Day
Honors working class
-International socialist movement declared this day to commemorate workers
-Major unions stage rallies in Abuja and other industrial areas Workers Day Presented by Ashley, Victoria, and Shelby Nigeria Cultural Diversity Education
Dr. Patrick Coggins Other groups include Igala,
Nupe, Ibibio, and Ijaro Most populated country in Africa
Population = 170,123,740 people (July 2012) (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012)
250 Nigerian groups
Hausa and Fulani (29%)
Tiv 2.5% The People The capital is Abuja
English is the official language, BUT many others are spoken, including:
and over 500 additional indigenous languages Overview The green represents agriculture and the white represents unity and peace.
Nigeria, along with many other ethnically diverse countries, chose a simple flag design.
-Many countries do this because a more complex design may honor some groups while excluding others One indigenous religion is Yoruba
-United by language
-Believe Ife is the
original homeland of humankind Believe "Religion should remain the source of morality... members should be devout, immensely spiritual" (32). Sports and
Cinema Ceremonies and Festivals -All stages of life marked by particular customs
Ex: Naming ceremony
-The ceremony varies by individual group, but names have meaning in all groups Unique Nigerian Holidays New Years
Good Friday, Easter Sunday,
Christmas Islamic Holidays Ramadan
-The ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the most venerated month of the Islamic year
Mawlid Al-Nabi (Prophet's Birthday)
Eid Al-Adha (Babbar Sallah) Arugungu Fishing Festival
Boxing Day Democracy Day May 29th
-Commemorates the day the country returned from military to civilian rule Independence Day October 1st
*Largest festivity in the country
*Parades & a
presidential speech Festivals Boxing Day -Extension of Christmas celebrations
-Named after the boxes gifts are given in Fishing Festival February or March
*Takes place near the Sokoto River
*First held in 1934
-Contest marking the end of the growing season
-Lasts almost 1 hour
-Only nets and gourds are allowed
-Other activities include duck hunting, arts & crafts, swimming, and diving Yam Festival
Usually in August
Celebrated at the end of the work cycle
-Named after the popular African food
(Yams were the first crop harvested here)
-Filled with rituals and symbolism Oki Festival Varies annually in December
-Social ceremony by the indigenous
-Dancers mimic movements of sea creatures
Oki is the main character
-Giant marine creature resembling a sword shark leads group
-Other creatures include turtles, silver dolphin, white shark, and crocodiles Christmas December
Opposite from European weather
-Dry and dusty
Celebrated without many
of the European traditions
-Celebrated regardless of religion
-Time for family and close friends
-Houses are decorated with palms,
-Villagers perform "Ekon," the nativity story
Villagers dance to the beat of drums while
holding a doll representing Baby Jesus Easter "Christian" Holidays Coordinates with the Christian calendar
-Celebrated similar to Christians in America
-Prayers, feasts, ceremonies Islamic Holidays Pretest True/False Nigeria is Africa's most populous country. T/F
Hausa is the official language in Nigeria. T/F
Nigerians celebrate Independence Day. T/F
Part of Nigeria is ruled by Islamic law. T/F
There are 500 ethnic groups in Nigeria. T/F Nigerian's official currency is the dollar. T/F
40% of Nigerians are Christian. T/F
Nigeria used to be a French territory. T/F
The capital of Nigeria is Lagos. T/F
Nigeria's main export is oil. T/F MAPS *These holidays as well as others are
part of the Islamic religion and are not unique to Nigerian culture. Because of this, all Islamic holidays have not been listed, just a few significant ones. Ramadan Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar and the most venerated
-It is the host to numerous special days in the Islamic religion Maweid Al-Nabi/Id El-Maulud (Prophet's Birthday) -Celebrates the birth of the
prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam Eid Al-Fitr -Celebrated to mark the end of Ramadan, this is a 3 day celebration meaning "Festival of Fast Breaking" Eid Al-Adha "Feast of Sacrifice"
-Celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son to Allah
-It lasts 3 days, after a pilgrimage to Mecca, a holy place for the religion Nigerian
Holidays Contributions Agriculture Oil Social Contributions Oil Until the 1970s with the rise of the
oil economy, agriculture and
transportation were the main sources
of income in Nigeria. According to the World Factbook, the oil industry in Nigeria makes up 95% of its foreign exchange earnings Agriculture Products: Cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, timber, fish Industries: Crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, rubber products, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel Since gaining its independence, Nigeria has been involved in conflict resolution across the globe, but especially in Africa.
-Nigeria strives for peace not only in her own country, but also around the world
Ex: 1963 - Peace mission to Congo
Involvement with Darfur in Sudan Conflict Resolution Notable Nigerian Americans In Academia: Bartholomew Nnaji "It takes a village..." philosophy
*People are generally outgoing and friendly
*Developed oral culture (telephones)
*Sometimes titles are used based on occupation, for example, "Architect John Smith" Photo from the Arugungu Fishing Festival Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation All petroleum production is part of the joint venture known as the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. These joint ventures account for approximately 95% of all crude oil output.
-Nigerian constitution states that all minerals, oil, and gas legally belong to the federal government.
-Six companies operating in Nigeria are:
Royal Dutch Shell (British)
Texaco (Now merged with Chevron) Musical Nobitility: Titalayo Rachel Adekokun and O.J. Ekemode Nigerian Titilayo Rachel Adedokun was the 1993 Miss Ohio
and was a finalist in the 1993 Miss America pageant
. She graduated from the Cincinnati College Conservatory
of Music.Born in Ijebu-Ijesha, Nigeria,
Orlando Julius (O.J.) Ekemode has become
a legend of real African music in the United States.
After learning to play the drums
at eight years old, Ekemode has created traditional African music
by combining contemporary jazz, religious,
reggae, Afro-beat, and soul music that is stylistically similar to James Brown. Bartholomew Nnaji is known as one of the worl’d top three robotics scientists. He is currently a professor at the College of Engineering of the University of Massachusetts. He came to the United States on an athletic scholarship in 1977. Nnaji has written six books, was the editor in chief of the International Journal of Design and Manufacturing, and has one many awards including the 1988 Young Manufacturing Engineering Award. He is the past interim federal minster for science and technology in Nigeria. In Journalism: Bartholomew Nnaji and Okey Ndibe Bartholmew Nnaji is also known for his work for the popular journal African World, especially with Okey Ndibe, former editor of African Commentary. Their work has attempted to educate Americans about the distortions in history about Africans. Sports: Hakeem Olajuwon, Donald Igwebuike,
and Christian Okoye -Hakeem Olajuwon is considered to be the second-best basketball player in the world by George Karl, coach of the Seattle Supersonics. "Akeem" led his team to NBA titles two different years and led the University of Houston to the Final Four of the NCAA tournament three years in a row. -Donald Igwebuike kicked five years for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers football team and played another for the Minnesota Vikings. -Christian Okoye is known as the "Nigerian Nightmare" for his fame as a discus thrower and football player. He began his sports career in the US in 1982 when he received a track scholarship to Azusa Pacific University. In football, he became the NFL's leading rusher in 1989 as a running back for the former Kansas City Chiefs. According to the United Nations classification, Nigeria is a middle income nation. Economy 2nd largest stock exchange on the African continent
12th largest producer of petroleum products in the world
Outside the petroleum industry, the economy lacks basic infrastructure
Agriculture has suffered due to mismanagement but still accounts for about 2/3 of employment The widespread poverty and lack of industrial resources are the biggest challenge to the economy. -Nigeria is the United State's largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa
-Nigeria supplies about 8% of the United State's oil imports Economic Relations with the United States The U.S. Government considers its relationship with Nigeria to be one of the most important in Africa.
-Nigeria is an influential factor in African politics
-Nigeria ranks among the top five troop contributors to U.N. peacekeeping missions
The main problems in Nigeria are ethno-religious clashes
-Attempted terrorist attack on American airliner by a Nigerian in December 2009
-Resurgence of Boko Haram, a militant Islamist group
*Boko Haram is primarily focused on their domestic agenda United States - Nigeria
Relations U.S Secretary of State Hillary Clinton meets Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan “The Obama Administration has been supportive of Nigeria’s recent reform initiatives, including
anti-corruption efforts, economic and
electoral reforms, energy sector privatization, and programs to promote peace and development in the Niger Delta.” (Ploch) -Established the U.S.-Nigeria Binational Commission in 2010 Formal Education Education 6 years of primary schooling
3 years of junior secondary schooling
3 years of senior secondary schooling
4 years of university * First 6 years are technically mandatory Annual term is 10 months long
-Sectioned into three
10-12 week periods Nursery school is actually the first step of education but due to cost parents can't afford to send their children there
Primary school is supposed to be free but it really isn't.
Parents have to pay school levies and pay for the school uniforms
Parents also must pay for secondary education Economic Factors Examinations Students must take the Common Entrance Exam to be admitted into secondary school
After 3 years of secondary school, students take the Junior Secondary School Examination. If they pass they are awarded a Junior Secondary School Certificate.
After receiving the Junior Secondary School Certificate, students may go on to Senior Secondary School
After 3 years of senior secondary school, students must take another another exam which can earn them the Senior Secondary School Certificate At the secondary school level there is an option to attend a technical/commercial school.
-Due to financial constraints, parents usually can't afford to send their children
-Children pursue their education at private business centers and commercial schools although these offer lower quality education Northwest cities of Kano and Katsina (Hausa kingdoms) date back to around 1000 AD. The Bornu empire near Lake Chad joined them as areas of trade between north and south Africa.
In the southwest, Oyo, a Yoruba kingdom, was founded around 1400 A.D.
As early as the 15th and 16th centuries, the kingdom of Benin developed, sporting an efficient army, ceremonial court, and artisans still recognized today.
In the 17th-19th centuries, European traders established port for increasing slave trade between Nigeria and the Americas.
*In the 19th century, the British Navy tried to replace slave trade with commodity trade.
In the early 19th century, Usman dan Fodio, Fulani leader, preached Islam and attempted to bring most areas of the north under control of an empire in Sokoto. Pre-"Nigeria" Pre-"Nigeria" Kingdom
The Second Republic
The Abortive Third Republic
Abubakar's Transition to Civilian Rule
The Obasanjo Administration
Civilian Transition Periods of Nigerian History In many areas, school buildings are inadequate or non-existent
Most students in rural areas only go to primary school
A little over 1/3 Nigerian teens attend secondary school Universal Basic Education Programme Goals: -Nigerians can legally work at age 15 Problems in Education -Child labor is common The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme was introduced in 1999 by the Nigerian Federal Government to provide better access to quality basic education in Nigeria.
Key parts: Ensure interrupted access to a 9-year formal education by providing free and compulsory basic education
Students are entitled to 6 years of primary education and 3 years of junior secondary education providing Early Childhood Care Development and Education (ECCDE) Reduce school drop-out rate
Improve relevance, quality, and efficiency of education
Focus curriculum on acquisition of literacy, life skills, and values for lifelong education and useful living Basic Features: "Free, formal, basic education"
Emphasis on curriculum diversification
Separation of Junior Secondary and Senior Secondary Schools
Introduction to computer literacy
Appropriate continuous teacher professional development
Community ownership of schools including participation in decisions After the Napoleonic wars, the British expanded trade into Nigeria. In 1885, Great Britain's claim to a sphere of influence received international recognition, resulting in the charter of the Royal Niger Company.
In 1900, the Royal Niger Company came under control of the British Government.
In 1914, the area was formally united as the "Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria."
The UK ruled northern and southern Nigeria separately.
-Northern leaders retained their religion-based structures under and "indirect rule" arrangement
-Western influence and education progressed in the south
After WWII, Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence resulted in successive constitutions created by the British Government which moved Nigeria toward representative self-government. British Influence -In October 1960, Nigeria gained full independence as a federation of three regions (northern, western, and eastern)
*A constitution provided for a parliamentary form of government where each of the three regions retained a measure of self-government
-The federal government was given power over defense and security, foreign relations, and commercial and fiscal policies
-In October 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and created a new constitution, altering its relationship with the United Kingdom.
-This constitution also established a fourth region, the midwest. Independence Located in Western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea
Divided into 36 states with
1 Federal Capital Territory
356,700 square miles
1.4% of country's area is water Geography of Nigeria 12,000 B.C. – Evidence that there were people of various indigenous groups
500 B.C. – an iron civilization emerged. Technology was altered, farming, urbanization and settlements were created
1450-1850 A.D. – Contacts with Europe. The slave trade was established which had severe consequences on the people
1804 – Islamic revolution took place in Northern Nigeria. Created an epidemic of the spread of Islam
1842 - The spread of Christianity began. Islam and Christianity became the dominant religions
1861 – Establishment of a British consulate in Lagos, the beginning of a process that led to the conquest of Nigeria
1897 – “Nigeria” became the official name
1946 – Richards Constitution, with a central legislature. Marked the beginning of constitutional reforms that led to independence
1954 – Federal system of government introduced
1959 – Regional self-government in the North History 1960 – Independence from Britain, October 1
1967 – Beginning of the Nigerian civil war
1970 – End of civil war, January 13
1985-1992 – Nigeria under General Ibrahim Babagida, failed economic and political programs
1993 - Presidential election, won by Chief <.K.O Abiola. Country was thrown into crisis shortly after
1994-1998 – Dictator Of General Sani Abacha, died June 8, 1998. Nigeria’s image was ruined and opposition forces were repressed History (continued) -On January 15, 1966, a small group of army officers overthrew the government and assassinated the federal prime minister.
*Mostly a result of the Igbo rebelling against the government.
In response, the military divided the four regions into 12 states to attempt to give greater autonomy to minority ethnic groups.
Still frustrated, the Igbo region declared independence and succeeded in May 1967, creating the "Republif of Biafra"
-->A civil war ensued, with the Republic of Biafra defeated in 1970. -A new constitution was published in 1978.
-Political parties were formed and candidates were elected for president and vice president, the two houses of the National Assembly, governorships, and state houses of assembly.
On December 31, 1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic. Major General Muhammadu Buhari emerged as leader of the Supreme Military Council. The Buhari government was peacefully overthrown by Army Chief of Staff Major General Ibrahim Babangida in August 1985. The Second Republic Reconciliation was rapid following the war and the country refocused its energy on economic development.
On July 29, 1975, Gen. Murtala Muhammed staged a bloodless coup accusing Gen. Yakubu Gowon's military government of delaying the promised return to civilian rule.
*General Muhammed announced a timetable for the resumption of civilian rule by October 1, 1979. He was assassinated on February 13, 1976 in an abortive coup. His chief of staff took over and adhered to Muhammed's schedule.
Seven new states were created in 1976, under Muhammed's previous recommendation, bringing the total to 19. This process continued until 1996, totaling at 36 states. Civil War In 1989, a constitution was in the works for the Third Republic. In 1990, mid-level officers tried and failed to over throw Babiangida.
In December 1990, elections began, but Babangida was largely in control of them, canceling them, casting accusations of fraud, and disqualifying candidates. The 1993 elections had essentially the same result, with Yoruba Abiola winning the election, but with Babangida annulling it shortly after.
Babangida handed power over to Ernest Shonekan, who ruled into the next elections. At the next election, Defense Minister Sani Abacha took over. He quickly resumed the country to military rule but promised to return the government to civilian rule. He was replaced by General Abdulsalami Abubakar in the event of his death.
Abubakar released many known civilian political detainees and decreased the number of reported human rights abuses. The Abortive Third Republic -The military Provisional Ruling Council (PRC) was the main decision-making body during Abacha and Abubakar's rule.
In 1998, the Abubakar government appointed the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to conduct elections. INEC held a series of four elections and former military head of state Olusegun Obasanjo ran as the civilian candidate and won the election, becoming the president of Nigeria.
The PRC created a new constitution, providing for a bicameral legislature, National Assembly, House of Representatives, and Senate. Abubakar's Transition to Civilian Rule The Obasanjo Administration The following elections in 2007 were flawed, with violence, vote-rigging, and unfairness, mostly among the states.
Despite that, Nigeria elected President Umaru Yar-Adua, establishing the first transition of power between civilian administrations.
-Yar-Adua pledged to make peace and security in the Nigeria Delta and continue electoral reform. After a medical emergency in 2009, Vice President Goodluck Johnathan took over as Acting President until May 6, 2010, when he was officially sworn in as President in the event of President Yar-Adua. Civilian Transition -In 1999, the emergence of democratic Nigeria ended 16 years of consecutive military rule.
Obasanjo improved human rights and democratic practice.
Obasanjo was so well-liked that many supporters tried to amend the constitution to allow him to serve a third presidential term. In May 2006, the National Assembly peacefully chose not to adopt the amendment. Children are valued for their support and the help they give to their family and parents.
-Viewed as the future of the family
In most cultures, children are raised by their parents, especially the mother.
Grandparents often contribute to the household by helping raise the children.
Children are hard-working and responsible from a young age.
Especially in rural areas, many work at home or on the family farm. Children Elders -Nigerians respect old age and take care of elders
*Younger people obey their elders, wives obey husbands
-Elders are addressed in the third person and eye contact is encouraged
-Life expectancy is not very high (around 50 years)
-Death is seen as a passage to new life, and in many cultures it is celebrated -Most Nigerians live in extended families, especially in rural areas
-Many live in compounds with individual huts or cottages for each nuclear family Family -A large family is an asset
-Some cultures are polygamist
-Here, wives collectively manage the household and take turns feeding their husband. They generally provide for their own children. ***Marriage is a contract -- divorce is common and acceptable -Nigeria has traditionally been a patriarchal society in which men subjugated women in all areas, although recently women have been fighting for change
Nigeria's Constitution guarantees women equal rights, but traditional practice prevents these from being realized
-The coming of age ceremony is a significant event
In Hausa families, girls are married young, usually in arranged marriages
Most girls used to marry as soon as they came of age, now some wait
Women are also granted an equal right to education, but again, traditional practices prevent this from happening. The literacy rate for men, at 74%, is much higher than the women's rate of 59%. Women Nigeria is a Federal Republic modeled after the United States.
The 1999 constitution created a bicameral National Assembly consisting of a 360-member House of Representatives and 109-member Senate. The executive branch is led by the president with the judiciary including a Supreme Court and lower court.
-Very similar to the United States governmental branches Political Structure Dance and music are both important parts of Nigerian culture.
Many types of music, including:
-Palm Wine Music
as well as jazz, hip-hop, folk, rap, and traditional instrumental music.
*Many Nigerian cultures have their own forms of music Music Highlife - sounds like an African version of American big band or ballroom music
Afro-beat - sounds like a combination of African rhythms and jazz and soul
Palm wine music - sounds like fast-paced, frenzied rhythms commonly heard in palm wine bars
Juju - *Nigeria's most popular form of music* Uses traditional drums and other percussion to back up vocals and guitar 1. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country. T/F
True - Nigeria is Africa's most populous county.
2. Hausa is the official language in Nigeria. T/F
False - English is the official language of Nigeria.
3. Nigerians celebrate Independence Day. T/F
True - Nigerians celebrate their own Independence Day on October 1st.
4. Part of Nigeria is ruled by Islamic law. T/F
True - Northern Nigeria has adopted Islamic law.
5. There are 500 ethnic groups in Nigeria.
False - There are over 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria. Post-Test Ethnoreligious conflict is unfortunately common in Nigeria.
-Many Muslims and Christians fight over the spread of Islamic law across the mostly Muslim north.
1/3 of Nigeria's 36 states are ruled by sharia (Islamic) law. 6. Nigeria's official currency is the dollar. T/F
False- The official currency of Nigeria is the naira.
7. 40% of Nigerians are Christian. T/F
True - 40% of Nigerians are Christian, 50% are Muslim, and 10% practice indigenous beliefs.
8. Nigeria used to be a French territory. T/F
False - Nigeria used to be a British territory and is now independent.
9. The capital of Nigeria is Lagos. T/F
False- The capital of Nigeria used to be Lagos but is now Abuja.
10. Nigeria's main export is oil. T/F
True- 95% of Nigeria's exchange earnings come from oil. Music and Dance Na Gode! (Thank you!) -Tropical
-Coastline dominated by lagoons and inlets
Southwest - wet climate w/ heavy rainfall
North - dry climate
West - wet and dry savanna climate Climate *About the size of California Language 4:00-6:00 Dance is an important part of many Nigerian cultures. 0:00-1:00 Currency = Naira