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Transcript of Scaffolding Reading
for Low Level Readers What are the obstacles
"Kids Who Can't Read Good?" There is NO one-size-fits-all "Active Comprehension" After Reading
"Metaphorical and Reflective Response"
"Reading Like a Historian" http://sheg.stanford.edu/node/45 Pre-Reading
"Framing the Text" The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set.
It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity of this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell.
After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated (Bransford & McCarrell, 1974).
1. Knowledge about the Topic.
2. Knowledge about the Structure and Organization (Graphic Organizers).
You know the structure of your text, so share your expertise with the students to improve comprehension!
3. Knowledge about the Vocabulary (Tier Words).
Pre-exposure to difficult vocabulary improves comprehension of the content. Resources
2. During Reading
3. After Reading "Whatcha talking ‘bout?”
Reading Comprehension Strategies Should Be Taught in Every Content Area "Reading and Writing in the Academic Content Area"
Activity: Jigsaw Reading We all want our students to become good readers of challenging works of fiction and nonfiction that they will encounter in junior high school, high school, and beyond. What do I model during the pre-reading stage?
“I am pre-reading the chapter questions so I know what to look for...”
“I am pre-reading the captions, titles, headings, charts, and graphs so I can stir my prior knowledge” (Text Mapping).
Pre-reading takes seconds and has significant impact!
Information gathered from pre-reading can reduce some of the students frustration with difficult texts. Cold Reading Activity "Activate, Increase, and Appraise Prior Knowledge." Anticipation Guide: a set of statements based on the text where students agree or disagree and justify their opinion.
Active Comprehension Strategy: Teachers read a portion of the text and students respond to, “What more would you like to know about…?” http://www.wordsift.com/ "Word Sift" http://www.wordle.net/ "Wordle" ELA Specific Resources Closing Credits Technology Resources "Edmodo" "Glogster" edu.glogster.com/
"Reading Like a Historian" http://sheg.stanford.edu/node/45 Pre-made Lessons Reflection Activity: Reflect on our PD day using 140 characters. I woke up early to vote #LongLineInRO. (32)
I was rushed to set up for PD. I hope we don't have tech (75)
problems. How many days till our next vacation #Italy12 (121) :( Det. Tigers #WSGM4 (140) http://www.quia.com/ba/41785.html www.kaganonline.com/catalog/ETT/ "Kagan Timer Tools" www.edmodo.com www.classtools.net Experience and Research Research shows that scaffolding instruction and giving guidance helps our students become better readers. Assigning reading homework raises important questions:
10% of what we read
20% of what we hear
30% of what we see
50% of what we both see and hear
70% of what we talk about with others We Remember... Edgar Dale "Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching" During Reading
"Reading Carefully and Re-Reading" "The Cap on the Toothpaste" "Show Students How to Set Their GPS" Pre-Reading: Explicit Modeling A Cooperative Learning Structure Organizes Classroom Instruction
Increases Deeper Comprehension
Repeatable with Different Curriculum "Focusing the Reader"
Three Types of Prior Knowledge "Analyzing and Interpreting" Kelly Gallagher Plausible Interpretation Nursery Rhyme Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the King's horses, And all the King's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again! In small groups, have students read deeper into the nursery rhyme and Write down their collective interpretation. Pop-tarts Historical and Literary Reference The image of Humpty Dumpty was made famous by the illustrations included in the 'Alice through the looking glass' novel by Lewis Carroll. However, Humpty Dumpty was not a person in the famous rhyme! Humpty Dumpty was in fact believed to be a large cannon! It was used during the English Civil War ( 1642 - 1649). "Most Important Word Reflection" http://avhs2.ednet.ns.ca/staff/vanzoosts/Notes%20and%20Handouts/Circles%20of%20Reflection.pdf "Circles of Reflection Conversation" What does this text mean to my family?
What does this text mean in terms of my peers?
What does this text mean in terms of my community?
How do the ideas in this text affect both my community and others?
What does this text mean in terms of thinking about my country?
What relevance doe sit play in relation to our national well-being?
What does this text mean about the human condition?
What can I learn about humanity from reading this text?
What are the universal truths it contains? "Circles of Reflection" "Inference Battleship" "Classroom Tools" Silence Everything!
"Academic and Personal Relevance"
Without any scaffolding from the teacher, certain texts can be too distant and too foreign for students to build comprehension.
1. Metacognition: Think about your thinking
2. Cornell Notes: How and Why NOT What and Who
(see examples in packet)
3. Sticky note summaries: one sentence, one word
4. Non-linguistic representations! (50% of kids are non-linguistic learners; this offers a 27 percentile gain!)
Turn and Share: What are 2 strategies you can use tomorrow? Select a pre and during strategy and explain why. Role Play Classroom LARPing Hot Seat "Cooperative Testing" Silent Reading: Comprehension Activities Prediction Chart
Word Sorts help students make connections necessary to classify words into categories as well as stir prior knowledge and activate comprehension while reading! Directions: (see example in packet)
1. Sort the following words into as many categories based on logical arrangements looking for shared features amongst their meanings.
2. Sort into two columns.
3. Give each column a label which suits the information. Word Sorts (ex. in packet)
1. Students record the heading into a prediction chart.
2. Students read the topic sentence and closing sentence of that heading's section to make a relevant prediction.
4. Students NOW read the section, and then return to the prediction to check for accuracy (reflection, metacognition).
5. Students ARE successful!
Layering this with Cornell Notes is a great idea. "Pic Lit" http://www.piclits.com Reading Purpose: "Make Beliefs Comix" http://www.makebeliefscomix.com/ 1. Students are told to prepare the night before for a test on several items you want them to retrieve in order to build long term memory and comprehension.
2. Small groups test together without any talking- until the very end when they have 60 seconds to two minutes to revise.
3. Each student must answer one question you give while the others silently evaluate deciding how they will use their 1-2 mins. of revision.
All kids learn. Everybody wins. Positive peer pressure to prepare. TWBAT identify the current literacy issues in America, and explain why teaching literacy skills will empower
both teacher and student. Traveling on skis across the rotting surface of the ice, Thomas Orde-Lees had just about reached camp when an evil, knob like head burst out of the water just in front of him, He turned and fled, pushing as hard as he could with his ski poles and shouts for Wild (the second-in-command) to bring his rifle.
The animal, a sea leopard, sprang out of the water and came after him, bounding across the ice with the peculiar rocking-horse gait of a seal on land. The beast looked like a small dinosaur, with a long, serpentine neck.
After a half-dozen leaps, the sea leopard had almost caught up with Orde-Lees when it unaccountably wheeled and plunged into the water. By then, Orde-Lees had nearly reached the other side of the floe; he was about to cross safe ice when the leopard's head exploded out of the water directly in front of him... (102)
What more would you like to know about Shakelton's Voyage? Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage Previewing Text: Powerful when done with purpose! Explicitly teach this! S O A P ubjects ccasion udience urpose peaker The racism of the South. Neighborhood urban legends. The book was written in 1960, prior to the civil rights movement. Maybe the author wanted her audience to see the ugliness of poverty and racism. Explores ignorance sometimes fostered by the lack of education. The tone varies: gentle, hopeful, and humorous. To Kill a Mockingbird SOAPS can be used with nonfiction Historical Artifacts Have I given the student the proper amount of support to make meaning from the text?
Did I anticipate the needs of the student? Presentation Focus
"The Big Three" Page 2 The Compelling Why Personal Why: Knowing what lead to the Holocaust can help us to never fall prey to blindly following a government. Academic Why: Studying the cause and effects of dictatorship will allow us to contrast political systems, historical events, and ace the test! Students sit in the Hot Seat(s) Student becomes the character, issue, concept, idea.
Audience asks relevant questions.
Teacher evaluates what the students are "getting". "Activate Comprehension" "Framing the Text" Collaboration raises comprehension "Peer Partnerships" Provides support for reluctant readers Structure ensures active participation "Reading Homework!?" S.O.A.P.S. Bookmark S "During Reading Modeling" "Reading like a Historian" Let's take a look at the Active Comprehension Strategy Word Sorts involve classification = Best Practice =
Improved Comprehension What active reading strategies do you see/hear being used? How would this support our struggling readers? (exs. in packet)