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Copy of Ch. 18 American Imperialism

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chris fackina

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Ch. 18 American Imperialism

1890-1917
Chapter 18: An Emerging World Power
How did America become a World Power?
By 1917, America had become a global Power.
Chapter Outline:
1. The Roots of Imperialism
2.The Spanish American War
3. The United States Acquiring New Lands
4. The United States as a World Power
Section 2: The Spanish-American War
Section 3: The U.S. Acquiring New Lands
Section 4: The U.S. as a World Power
This power would be put to use during the final years of World War I.
Imperialism-the policy by which stronger nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories,
Ch. 18 Section 1: The Roots of American Imperialism
The Causes of Imperialism
America's 1st Steps Towards A World Power

1867- William Seward purchases Alaska
from Russia
for $7.2 million.
almost doubled size of country
rich with natural resources

U.S. Influence grows in Latin America and China
Pan-American Highway system linked U.S. and Central America
Trade agreements in the Caribbean, South America, and China
The United States and Hawaii
Hawaii and U.S. linked economically since 1790
use of PORTS and trade

1887 U.S. strong-arms King Kalakaua into allowing the construction of Pearl Harbor

1890 American businessmen deeply invested
in Hawaiian Sugar Cane call for Annexation.

1893 Queen Liliuokalani- determined to restore Hawaiian political power is overthrown by U.S. marines and makes Sanford B, Dole the president of Hawaii

1898-President McKinley annexes Hawaii after the out break of the Spanish-American war.

Europe and Japan's ANNEXATION of territories for raw materials:
ECONOMIC GAINS-imperial countries remove resources from acquired territory and expand markets. (Africa and China)

WHY THE UNITED STATES?

A BELIEF IN MANIFEST DESTINY AND OUR
1. THIRST FOR NEW MARKETS
America sought territories to promote trade. We had
a surplus of resources already.
2. DESIRE FOR MILITARY STRENGTH
Alfred T. Mahan- adovcated America builds a strong navy to protect interests over seas.
3. ANGLO-SAXON SUPERIORITY
The U.S. has the responsibility to civilize the inferior peoples of the world
Causes of the war
1895- Jose Marti, a Cuban patriot, launched a war to gain independence from Spain.
Americans favor Cuba

William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer-newspaper publishers who spread
"YELLOW JOURNALISM"
against the Spanish.

Yellow Journalism-exaggerated stories that included sensational headlines and pictures on front page.
meant to demonize the Spanish.

McKinley warns Spanish to establish peace...or else.
ordered USS Maine to Havana harbor to protect American citizens.
Causes of the War Continued
THE DELOME LETTER
Feb. 1898-intercepted letter written by a Spanish Diplomat, said McKinley was "stupid politician"
fueled American
(Jingoism)-aggressive nationalism

Feb. 15th 1898-USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor!
266 US sailors dead, McKinley orders inquiry into explosion.

Congress passes 4 resolutions that amount to a declaration of war.
Spain declares war on U.S.A.

"REMEMBER THE MAINE"
becomes the rallying cry to intervene in Cuba

Song were rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898, and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898.

"Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry!

And how proudly sailed the warship Maine, a Nation’s pride, without a stain! A wreck she lies, her sailors slain. By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain!

Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry!
Wave the starry flag! In mud it shall not drag!"
"Awake United States"
American Troops Battle the Spanish
(Philippines)
Americans responding enthusiastically to the war.
200,000 men enlisted.

May 1, 1898-
Commodore George Dewey defeats Spanish at Manilla Bay in the Philippines

Emilio Aguinaldo-Filipinos nationalist led the fight against Spain.

Aug. 1898- 15,000 American soldiers arrive and Spanish troops surrender.
American Troops Battle the Spanish
(Cuba)
June 1898- U.S. marines capture Guantanamo Bay

Rough Riders- Calvary unit organized by Theodore Roosevelt. made up of rugged westerners and upper class easterners.
gained fame in Battle of San Juan Hills

U.S. occupies Spanish island of Puerto Rico.

Spanish Surrender in August of 1898.
only 385 combat deaths for U.S.
Effects of the War
Secratary of State
John Hay
says it was
"Splendid little War"
April 25th-August 12th 1898.


The Treaty of Paris (1898) officially ended the war.
gave the U.S. : Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

Teller Amendment forbid U.S. from taking control of Cuba.

Spanish-American War gave the United States an Empire. Marks a turning point in U.S. Foreign Policy.
American Imperialism: A Contradiction?
Filipinos Rebel Against U.S.
Emilio Aguinaldo who helped the U.S. defeat the Spanish Now leads an insurrection against American rule of the Philippines.
guerrilla warfare -a non-traditional warfare involving small bands of fighters.

1901-Americans capture Aguinaldo and the insurrection ends after3 years.
4000 Americans killed, Spanish-American War 379 battle casualties

1901 -1904 William H. Taft, future President, made Governor of the Philippines.
helped islands recover by extending limited self-rule and constructing schools, roads, and bridges.

1916-Congress passes the
JONES ACT
which says the Philippines will someday be free.
30 years later in 1946 Americans liberate the Philippines from the Japanese and it finally becomes a nation.
1899-European countries carve China into Spheres of Influence. Within each sphere a certain country had privileged access to Chinese ports.
America had no such sphere
Secretary of State John Hay
notified foreign leaders that the U.S. expected access to commerce in China.

OPEN DOOR NOTES
- America calls for open access to China's coastal ports

Boxer Rebellion
(1900)-Chinese group kills foreign dignitaries and missionaries.
put down by multinational forces including America.


U.S. Pursues Interests in China
Tensions Between U.S. and Japan
(Russo-Japanese War)
Japan and Russia go to war over Manchuria its brutal and costly

(THE PEACEMAKER
) President Roosevelt mediates the peace talks on the presidential Yacht and

American influence is growing globally and Roosevelt wins the
NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 1906


1907-Roosevelt sends the Great White fleet on "Goodwilll Tour" demonstarting America's growing power to Japan and the world.
U.s. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba.
U.S. Victory over Spanish liberated Puerto Ricans and Cubans, but it comes at a cost to their Independence...

1900-Foraker Act-established a civil government in PUERTO RICO.
The U.S. President would appoint PR's Governor and Upper legislative staff, the rest would be elected by Puerto Ricans.
1917 The US grant them
Commonwealth Citizenship

1900-

Platt Amendment-gave U.S. the right to "intervene" in CUBA
to preserve order in Cuba and limited their relations with foreign nations to Protect our business interest.. They become a U.S.
PROTECTORATE
"I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land."--
Mark Twain-
-
Anglo-Saxon civilization has taught the individual to protect his own rights; American civilization will teach him to respect the rights of others. --
William Jennings Bryan
----

PLEASE web search "OTA BENGA"
Roosevelt and "Big Stick" Diplomacy
"Big Stick" Diplomacy-U.S. policy for Latin America that required a strong military.







Roosevelt based his policy on a West African Proverb "Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick"
U.S. and the Panama Canal
1903-U.S. engineers Panama's revolution against Colombia
who would not agree to a canal across the narrow
ISTHMUS

Panama Canal links Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
43,400 worked on building it a Great Technological Engineering Feat
Completed in 1914
Roosevelt Updates Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine (1823) stated the Europe should stay out of Western hemisphere.

Roosevelt Corollary (1904)-United States will assume role of police power in Latin America, to protect American Business interest.

Many Latin American countries resented America's self-assuming role as policing power in western hemisphere.
Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
Taft relied on
DOLLAR DIPLOMACY
rather then the "Big Stick".
Dollar Diplomacy-
policy aimed to
increase American investments
through out Latin and South America
.
"substitute dollars for bullets"

Nicaraguan Rebellions in 1904 left that country bankrupt
Taft has American bankers bail them out in return for collecting custom duties and control of their railroads
Wilson Pursues Moral Diplomacy
Missionary Diplomacy-Wilson's foreign policy that aimed to promote human rights and would not recognize governments that were oppressive / undemocratic or threatened American Business Interest.
no vision of territorial conquest

1911-Mexican revolution led by Pancho Villia puts Missonary Diplomacy to the test
Wilson sends 15,000 American troops to hunt down Francisco "Pancho" Villia. He is never captured

1917-Wilson withdraws troops because of a more pressing matter...
1883-Admiral Mahan build the
GREAT WHITE FLEET
(the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world)
THE ANTI-IMPERIALIST- Men such as Williams Jennings Bryan (presidential candidate) and Mark Twain (American Writer) opposed dominating another country or territory
IMPERIALIST
- are convinced that the inferior people need American influence. 1904 Exposition leaves a Primitive image of the Philippine people
What did strong countries gain from imperialism?

How might these territorial gains impact a nation?
What possibilities
Playing Devils Advocate

Support an argument for and against American Imperialism

Pro vs. Con
Write a persuasive argument
as an Imperialist or
an Anti-Imperialist
Use supportive evidence from your notes and worksheets.
Supporting an Argument
You must include two Primary sources to support your argument
Full transcript