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Facts vs. Inference

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Jade Christian Regalario

on 22 July 2016

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Transcript of Facts vs. Inference

FACTS VS. INFERENCE
WHAT IS A FACT?
A Fact is a statement that can be proven true (or false) with some objective standard.
Facts vs. Inference
Their confusion which affects communication

BCOMDSI K32
Group 7
Balagot
Gurrea
Mariano
Nallas
Regalario
Reyes

EXAMPLES OF FACTS
There are 50 states in the United States.
1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogram.
Human beings use their legs to walk.
Your heart pumps blood through your body.
The leaves of growing plants are usually green.
EXAMPLES OF FACTS
WHAT IS AN INFERENCE?
WHAT IS AN INFERENCE?
EXAMPLES OF INFERENCE
John's house smells like soy sauce and used chopsticks are on the table.
It can be inferred that John just ate Chinese food.
Karen bought six lottery tickets the previous day and quit work the next day.
Her co-workers can infer that she won the lottery.
EXAMPLES OF INFERENCE
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FACTS AND INFERENCES
FACTS VS INFERENCE
FACTS
INFERENCE
A fact is something that is indisputably the case, it is something known to exist or to have happened.
Statements are made by an observer after an observations.
Limited to what is being observed only.

May be carelessly or carefully made.
May be made on the basis of a great background of previous experience with the subject-matter, or no experience at all.
May or may not be true or perhaps it is something that is only true in certain circumstances

FACTS VS INFERENCE (cont'd)
FACTS
INFERENCE
Can be made after some observations
Stays within what can be observed
Can be made in a limited number
Provides closest approach to certainty

Can be made at any time
Goes beyond what can be observed
Can be made in unlimited number
Shows some degree of probability

FACTS VS. INFERENCE CONFUSION
Fact-Inference Confusion
Language enables us to form statements of facts and inferences without making any linguistic distinction between the two. Similarly, when we listen to such statements, we often don’t make a clear distinction between statements of facts and statements of inference. Yet, there are great differences between the two. Barriers to clear thinking can be created when inferences are treated as facts, a hazard called
fact–inference confusion
.
Fact-Inference Confusion
Happens because a person failed to distinguish between what actually exists and what had assumed to exist.
All sorts of problems can arise from inferential statements when people take them in as factual statements.
When presenting any inference in the course of your work, you could use qualifiers such as “evidence suggest” or “in my opinion” to remind yourself and the receiver that this is not yet established as a fact.

There are
social
,
collegial
, and
legal
implications to confusing facts with inferences.
For example
: If you see Tad starting at a co-worker, you may make the inference that Tad is attracted to that co-worker. You may subsequently communicate your perception to a colleague, who may then tell another co-worker. Soon, despite the fact that Tad was not attracted to the co-worker at whom he was staring, a workplace rumor has started. This rumor may affect the work environment, the level of trust among co-workers, and also influence how workplace policies are written, such as those relating to sexual harassment and workplace relationships.
Fact-Inference Confusion
EXAMPLES OF FACTS
VS. INFERENCES
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Fact
Fact
Fact
Fact
Fact
Fact
Inference
Inference
Inference
Inference
Inference
Inference
Lisa has missed six days of work this month so far.
Lisa is calling in sick each time and therefore is either a hypochondriac or too sickly.
Lisa was on a vacation.
Lisa was just lazy to go to work.
Jane hardly ever talks to people at school.
Jane is a snob and doesn’t like us.
Jane is shy.
Jane is problematic.
Johnny is late for school this morning.
Johnny is late because he overslept.
Johnny is late because of traffic.
Johnny is late because he didnt catch the train.
The Civil War battle at Gettysburg took place in July of 1863.
The battle of Gettysburg was the decisive turning point of the Civil War.
The people involved in the battle was in high spirits.
The generals from each side were war freaks.
Helen Hayes, the First Lady of the American Theater, died on March 17, 1993, at 92 years of age.
Helen Hayes died peacefully in March of 1993, at the age of 92, due to her old age.
Helen Hayes had a heart attack.
Maybe Helen Hayes got into an accident.
The biology students are in Science Lab 3A.
Biology class meets in Science Lab 3A.
The students are doing their project in science lab 3A.
The students had a meeting in science lab 3A.
REFERENCES:
Examples of Inference. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2016, from
http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-inference.html
Fact, Inference, or Opinion. (n.d.). Retrieved June 09, 2016, from
http://www.uky.edu/~dolph/HIS316/handouts/fact.html
Fact, Observation and Inference in Conducting the Information Interview. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2016, from
http://www.roguecom.com/interview/facts.html
Grzeskowiak, R. (n.d.). Fact, Opinion, Inference. Retrieved June 9, 2016, from
http://nickjordan.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Fact-vs-Opinion.pdf
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (n.d.). Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions. Retrieved June 10, 2016, from
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-distinguishing-between-inferences-
and-assumptions/484
Schwartz, C. (2002). Fact, Inference, or Opinion? Retrieved June 9, 2016, from
http://www.classroomtech.org/credibility/Fact.Inference.Opinion.PDF
West, R. L., & Turner, L. H. (2006). Understanding interpersonal communication: Making choices in changing times. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Examples of Facts vs Inferences
Fact
Inference
Erika is experiencing a terrible migraine and a sore throat.
I suppose her migraine is caused by a flu.
Maybe her migraine as caused by stress.
I suppose her migraine was caused by lack of sleep.
It is a statement that appears to be true based on previous experiences.
-The greater the body of experience, the more an inference appears to be a fact.
Carlo is turning 20 on July 21. Tomorrow is July 21, Therefore Carlo's birthday is tomorrow.
FACT OR INFERENCE?
FACT OR INFERENCE?
FACT OR INFERENCE?
ERIKA HAS A CLASS AT 9:15 BUT SHE GOT THERE AT 9:30, THEREFORE SHE IS LATE.
FACT OR INFERENCE?
A student has one blue and one black ballpen in his bag. His notes are written using a blue ballpen. He prefers to use his blue ballpen than his black one.
It is a conclusion or judgment which expresses some significant attitude suggested by what is seen, heard, or read.
-It is a personal interpretation of a fact.
A woman walks into a store soaking wet and it is raining. She does not have an umbrella.
FACT OR INFERENCE?
It is a piece of information that is verifiable by direct observation and is backed by evidence.
Fact-Inference Confusion
Wrong inferences happen when you failed to distinguish between what actually exists and what you had assumed to exist.
A misevaluation in which a person makes an inference, regards it as a fact, and acts upon it as if it were a fact.
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