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Transcript of VENTILATION
Single side vent
Cross flow ventilation
Side vent with stack
Multi-cross flow ventilation
-Heat shifters consist of a fan and ducting and cost little to run and install. They move air from warm areas to cooler areas
-Heat shifters redistribute warm air that collects upstairs back downstairs, or warm air from the ceiling back down to floor level.
-They can also provide heat for rooms that only require low levels of heating, such as bedrooms. -Heat exchange pipes are run through a body of water or deep into the ground where the temperature is relatively stable all year round.
-Geothermal systems are highly efficient, producing up to four units of heat output for each unit of electricity input.
-Although expensive to install, depending on whether a bore or shallow trench is used, they have very low running costs.
-They are ideal where there are large heating and/or cooling loads, and are most suitable for multi-housing developments.
-Convective air movement relies on hot air rising and exiting at the highest point, drawing in cool air from shaded external areas over ponds or cool earth.
-Convection produces air movement capable of cooling a building but has insufficient air speed to cool the occupants.
-Solar chimneys can also be used to ensure effective convective air movement.
-Clerestory windows, spin away roof ventilators, and vented ridges, eaves and ceilings will allow heat to exit the building in nil breeze situations through convection. VPAU589 3844659 & 3879135
Each apartment has access to an individual ventilation shaft with a wind-powered rotary ventilator, controlled by a motorized louver panel in the hallway linked to the AC system, and combined with operable windows in the living and bedroom spaces a naturally cooling cross ventilation effect will be created. -The natural ventilation of the facade helps to keep the interior cool by exhausting the hot air within the facade.
Design guidelines are offered in building regulations and other related literature and include a variety of recommendations on many specific areas such as:
• Building location and orientation
• Building form and dimensions
• Indoor partitions and layout
• Window typologies, operation, location, and shapes
• Other aperture types (doors, chimneys)
• Construction methods and detailing (infiltration)
• External elements (walls, screens)
• Urban planning conditions WHY WE NEED VENTILATION - VENTILATION IS THE PROCESS OF REMOVING POLLUTED AIR AND REPLACING IT WITH FRESH AIR, WITHOUT CAUSING A DRAFT.
- BUILDINGS WITHOUT ADEQUATE VENTILATION WILL FEEL STUFFY AS THE AIR MOVEMENT WITHIN THE BUILDING IS TO LOW
- MOISTURE CAN DEVELOP THAT CAN CAUSE MOULD AND BACTERIA
- A LACK OF FRESH AIR RESULTS IN "SICK BUILDING SYNDROME" CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION IN BUILDINGS - EXCESS HEAT
- BREATHING (RESPIRATION) -OXYGEN IS REPLACED WITH CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER VAPOUR
- AIR-BOURNE PARTICLES SUCH AS BACTERIA, DUST,POLLENS
- BURNING OF MATERIALS USE UP VARYING AMOUNT OF OXYGEN AND GIVE OF WATER VAPOUR AND IMPURITIES
- GASES AND VAPOURS FROM MANUFACTURING PROCESSES REASONS TO VENTILATE - TO DILUTE - BODY ODOURS, DUST, BACTERIA, FUMES, SMOKE & CARBON DIOXIDE
- TO ABSORB - WATER VAPOUR (WITHOUT THE HUMIDITY RISING) & HEAT (WITHOUT THE TEMPERATURE RISING) TWO BASIC WAYS TO VENTILATE NATURAL - IS CREATED BY THE DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE BETWEEN THE AIR INSIDE A BUILDING & OUTSIDE THE BUILDING (KNOWN AS THE STACK EFFECT) & WIND PRESSURE
MECHANICAL - USING PRESSURE OR POWER TO MOVE THE AIR IN A BUILDING BY MECHANICAL MEANS (USUALLY A FAN) NATURAL VENTILATION NATURAL VENTILATION TYPES INTEGRATE SERVICES LAYOUT INTO
DESIGN DOCUMENTATION CROSS FLOW VENTILATION SIDE VENT WITH STACK MULTI-CROSS FLOW VENTILATION CONVECTIVE AIR MOVEMENT
-Buoyancy used for high-rise natural ventilation
-Buoyancy driven ventilation arise due to differences in density of interior and exterior air, which in large part arises from differences in temperature.
- When there is a temperature difference between two adjoining volumes of air the warmer air will have lower density and be more buoyant thus will rise above the cold air creating an upward air stream.
-In order for a building to be ventilated adequately via buoyancy driven ventilation, the inside and outside temperatures must be different so that warmer indoor air rises and escapes the building at higher apertures.
• Does not rely on wind: can take place on still, hot summer days when it is most needed.
• Stable air flow (compared to wind)
• Greater control in choosing areas of air intake
• Sustainable method
Limitations of buoyancy-driven ventilation:
• Lower magnitude compared to wind ventilation on the windiest days
• Relies on temperature differences (inside/outside)
• Design restrictions (height, location of apertures) and may incur extra costs (ventilator stacks, taller spaces)
Ventilation of rooms
A habitable room, office, shop, factory, work room, sanitary compartment, bathroom, shower room, laundry and any other room occupied by a person for any purpose must have-
(a) Natural complying with F4.6 or
(b) A mechanical or air-conditioning system complying with AS 1668.2 and AS/NZS 3666.1
F4.6 Natural ventilation
Natural ventilation provided in accordance with F4.5(a) must consist of permanent openings, windows, doors or other devices which can be opened-
(a) With an aggregate opening or openable size not less than 5% of the floor area of the room required to be ventilated; and
(b) Open to-
(i) suitable sizes court, or space open to the sky; or
(ii) an open verandah, carport or the like; or
(iii) an adjoining in accordance with F4.7
F4.7 Ventilation borrowed from adjoining room
Natural ventilation to a room may come through a window, opening, ventilating door or other device from an adjoining room (including an enclosed verandah) if both room are within the same sole-occupancy unit or the enclosed verandah is common property, and-
(a) in a class 2 building, a sole-occipancy unit of a class 3 building or class 4 part of a building-
(i) the room to be ventilated is not a sanitary compartment; and
(ii) the window, opening, door or other device has a ventilating area of not less than 5% of the floor area of the room not to be ventilated; and
(iii) the adjoining room has a window, opening, door or other device with a ventilating area of not less than 5% of the combined floor areas of both rooms; and
(b) in a class 5,6,7,8 or 9 building-
(i) the window, opening, door or other devices has a ventilating area of not less than 10% of the floor area of the room to be ventilated, measured not more than 3.6m above the floor; and
(ii) the adjoining room has a window, opening, door or other device with a ventilating area of not less 10% of the combined floor areas of both rooms; and
(c) the ventilating areas specified in (a) and (b) may be reduced as appropriate if direct natural ventilation is provided from another source. Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space without using mechanical systems. It refers to the flow of external air to an indoor space as a result of pressure or temperatures differences.
The following design guidelines are selected from the Whole Building Design Guide, a program of the National Institute of Building Sciences:
• Maximize wind-induced ventilation by siting the ridge of a building perpendicular to the summer winds
• Widths of naturally ventilated zone should be narrow (max 13.7 m
• Each room should have two separate supply and exhaust openings. Locate exhaust high above inlet to maximize stack effect. Orient windows across the room and offset from each other to maximize mixing within the room while minimizing the obstructions to airflow within the room.
• Window openings should be operable by the occupants
• Consider the use of clerestories or vented skylights.
Wind driven ventilation depends on wind behavior, on the interactions with the building envelope and on openings or other air exchange devices such as inlets or chimneys.
Some of the important limitations of wind driven ventilation:
• Unpredictability and difficulties in harnessing due to speed and direction variations
• The quality of air it introduces in buildings may be polluted for example due to proximity to an urban or industrial area
• May create a strong draught, discomfort. WIND DRIVEN VENTILATION BUOYANCY DRIVEN VENTILATION -The tapered circular form is derived from the wind conditions at the site where the aerodynamic form reduces the wind loads on the facade while also reducing the pedestrian level winds as compared to a similar height rectangular plan.
-Air flowing around the building creates positive pressure on the windward side and negative pressure on the leeward side creating a driving force for cross flow ventilation (Mumovic and Santamouris, 2009).
-Each floor plate has six triangular atrium at the perimeter. This circular plan is the key feature of the ventilation strategy as it is rotated on each floor by 5̊ to create six spiraling atrium's.
-These atrium's, enhanced by the pressure variation, act as the lungs of the building, providing natural ventilation with air entering through automatic monitored opening windows where the positive pressure occurs. NATURAL VENTILATION CASE STUDY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OUR ROLE AS BUILDING DESIGNERS Level 26 Typical Floor Plan (Williams, 2002) & Pressure Differential and Rotating Atria Concepts (Meguro, 2005) Section showing ventilated facade and air intake at the plenum.(Williams, 2002) The design as built has the interior glass wall left out at the balconies in the atriums. This allows the fresh air to penetrate the entire office floor without mechanical assistance. Air warmed by occupants and equipment rises up the chimney-like light wells. Local air-handling units have been used in place of a centralized system which allows mixed-mode use to be isolated by zone and by floor. MECHANICAL VENTILATION MECHANICAL VENTILATION SERVICES INSTALLATION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS -MECHANICAL VENTILATION FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE BUILDING DESIGN,SO THEREFORE, MUST BE INCORPORATED IN THE INITAL DESIGN PROCESS SO ALL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS ARE MET
-THE DUCT WORK FOR SUPPLY/EXTRACT SYSTEMS TO BE ALLOWED FOR WITHOUT COMPRISING THE AESTHETIC ASPECT OF THE BUILDING
-THE POSITION OF THE PLANT ROOM IS TO BE CONSIDERED AS IT IS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY EQUIPMENT, NOISE AND VIBRATIONS GHERKIN BUILDING COMPONENTS OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION - PIPES OR DUCTS TO DISTRIBUTE THE FRESH AIR FROM OUTSIDE THE BUILDING
- FANS AND OTHER EQUIPMENT WHICH PROVIDE THE POWER TO MOVE THE FRESH AIR AROUND THE BUILDING EXHAUST SYSTEMS - EXTRACTING THE AIR FROM INSIDE FANS - THREE BASIC TYPES - PROPELLER - DESIGNED TO WORK WITHOUT AN OUTER CASING
- CENTRIFUGAL - ROTATING WHEEL WHICH REVOLVES INSIDE A SCROLL SHAPED CASING
- AXIAL FLOW - IMPELLER ROTATING IN A CYLINDER SHAPED CASING - CREATE NEGATIVE PRESSURE INSIDE THE BUILDING
- CAUSES THE AIR IN THE ROOM TO MOVE TOWARDS THE FAN
- CAUSES FRESH AIR FROM OUTSIDE TO MOVE INTO THE ROOM THROUGH INLETS SUCH AS DOORS ETC
By harnessing the power of the wind the Bathroom Ventilation system changes the air in an average bathroom approximately five times per hour to constantly remove moist air and odours. SUPPLY SYSTEMS - SUPPLYING AIR FROM OUTSIDE - THE FAN FORCES AIR INTO A BUILDING THROUGH SUPPLY DUCTS
- FILLS ROOM WITH FRESH AIR AND CREATES A POSITIVE PRESSURE INSIDE THE ROOM
- TO MAINTAIN POSITIVE PRESSURE, THE SUPPLY SYSTEM MUST DELIVER MORE AIR INTO THE ROOM THAN THE EXHAUST SYSTEM OR OUTLETS REMOVE SUPPLY SYSTEMS GEOTHERMAL CEILING FANS - COST LITTLE TO BUY AND RUN
- CIRCULATE THE AIR BUT DO NOT REDUCE TEMPERATURE OR HUMIDITY RIDGE/ROOF VENTILATION - USED FOR LARGE INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
- CAN BE FIXED OR AUTOMATED EXHAUST FANS - GENERALLY USED IN KITCHENS, BATHROOMS,LAUNDRIES AND GARAGES/WORKSHOPS
- NEED TO ENSURE POLLUTED AIR IS DRAWN TO THE OUTSDE , NOT INTO ANOTHER ROOM ROOF FANS - MANY TYPES AVAILABLE
-GENERALLY WORKS WITH THE OUTSIDE WIND - THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT TYPE OF SYSTEMS AVAILABLE
- GENERALLY CLIMATE, SIZE OF BUILDING AND COST WILL DETERMINE THE BEST SYSTEM
- MECHANICAL SERVICE CONSULTANTS WILL WORK TOGETHER WITH BUILDER AND ARCHITECT FOR LARGE COMPLEX BUILDINGS EVAPORATIVE COOLING - - DRAWS HOT AIR OVER WETTED MEDIA, THEREBY EXCHANGING ENERGY AND REDUCING THE INTERNAL AIR TEMPERATURE
- THE WARMER AND DRIER THE OUT SIDE AIR, THE MOREE EFFICIENTLY EVAPORATIVE COOLING FUNCTIONS
- NOT THE BEST IN HIGH HUMIDITY HEAT RECOVERY VENTILATION (HRV) - ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION (ERV) - IT WORKS BY DRAWING OUTSIDE AIR IN THROUGH THE INLET DUCT, WHICH THEN IS HEATED BY THE HEAT EXCHANGE CORE AND SENT THROUGH THE HOUSE
- STALE WARM INSIDE AIR IS EXTRACTED OUT - THIS WARM AIR IS USED TO HEAT THE FRESH AIR
- AT NIGHT TIME USED FOR COOLING THE HOUSE IN SUMMER - NIGHT TIME PURGING
- ONLY DISADVANTAGE IS THAO THE BUILDING NEEDS TO BE DRAFT FREE - NO WINDOWS OPEN MECHANICAL VENTILATION CASE STUDY HEAT SHIFTERS SUMMARY - ANY BUILDING WILL ONLY WORK TO THE BEST OF ITS ABILITIES IF THE OCCUPANTS KNOW HOW TO USE IT
- BETTER TO SPEND THE MONEY ON GOOD PASSIVE DESIGN AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY THAN TO BE SPENDING IT ON HEATING AND COOLING MIXED MODE VENTILATION SYSTEM REFERENCES AS THERE IS MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND COMPANIES THAT SPECIALIZE IN THESES AREAS , WE RECOMMEND THESE LINKS BELOW FOR MORE IN DEPTH INFORMATION. NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION CODE - VOLUME ONE - SECTION F - PART F4 AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS - AS1668.2-2002 - THE USE OF VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING IN BUILDINGS OBJECTIVE - SPECIFY MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES
- PROVIDE A METHOD FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE LEVEL OF DILUTION PROVIDED BY VENTILATION
- PROVIDE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DESIGN OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS GREEN STAR - GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA - MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF - INDOOR ENVIRONMENT QUALITY SUCH AS -
- VENTILATION RATES
- AIR CHANGE EFFECTIVENESS
- CARBON DIOXIDE MONITORING AND CONTROL
- THERMAL COMFORT CLASS EXAMPLES http://www.pidcock.com.au/blog/2012/6/14/inspirational-buildings-no1.aspx http://www.resourcesmart.vic.gov.au/documents/Natural_Ventilation_Systems.pdf http://www.csiro.au/Organisation-Structure/Divisions/Ecosystem-Sciences.aspx http://airexchange.com.au/buy?gclid=CKr18aibqrMCFYwhpQodp1IAZw http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventilation_%28architecture%29 http://www.wbdg.org/resources/naturalventilation.php http://www.build.com.au/climatecontrol/ventilation/ventilation-regulations/bca-ventilation-requirements http://crackerjackventilation.com.au/products.html http://www.pic.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/7.07_Mechanical_exhaust-ventilation_systems2.pdf http://www.coltinfo.com.au/product-overview/climate-control-systems/ http://www.hrv.com.au/ http://www.gbca.org.au/ http://designbuildsource.com.au/ http://www.air2energy.com.au/ http://www.ourgreenoffice.com/ http://www.edmonds.com.au/home.aspx http://www.yourhome.gov.au/ http://www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/www/html/1517-home-page.asp http://www.abcb.gov.au/