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EO M231.05 Aircraft Control Surfaces
Transcript of EO M231.05 Aircraft Control Surfaces
TP1 & TP2
TP7 & TP8
Intro & Review
OBJECTIVES: By the end of this lesson the cadet shall be expected to identify and describe the locations, operations, methods and purposes of aircraft control surfaces.
IMPORTANCE: It is important for cadets to learn about aircraft control surfaces so they can understand subsequent and related principles of flight.
TP3 & TP4
EO M231.05 Aircraft Control Surfaces
TP9 & TP10
TP11 - Label the Control Surfaces in a Drawing of an Aircraft (Activity)
TP5 - Enact Control Surface Movements Controlled by a Pilot (Activity)
-Review the cockpit controls that move the associated empennage control surfaces
What are the four forces of flight?
What are the main axial movements of an aircraft?
-Identify Control Surface of the Empennage
-Explain How Stabilizers Reduce Unwanted Axial Movement
-Explain How the Rudder Produces Yaw
-Explain How the Elevator Controls Pitch
-Enact Control Surface Movements Controlled by a Pilot
-Identify the Wing Control Surfaces
-Explain the Operation of Ailerons
-Explain the Operation of Flaps
-Explain the Use of Trim Tabs
-Explain the Use of Dynamically Balanced Control Surfaces
-Color and Label the Control Surfaces in a Drawing of an Aircraft
-Explain uses of control surfaces and control assists
TP1 - Identify Control Surface of the Empennage (Tail)
-An aircraft’s empennage is very often called the tail section. The main parts are the vertical and horizontal stabilizers, each of which has other names as well.
-The vertical stabilizer is sometimes referred to as the fin and the horizontal stabilizer is sometimes referred to as the tailplane.
-The rudder is hinged to the back of the vertical stabilizer or fin. It is used to steer (yaw) the aircraft around the vertical axis.
-The elevator is hinged to the back of the horizontal stabilizer or tailplane. It is used to climb or descend by changing pitch around the lateral axis.
TP2 - Explain How Stabilizers Reduce Unwanted Axial Movement
-The horizontal and vertical stabilizers reduce unwanted pitch and yaw by the air moving past the flat surfaces of the stabilizers it tends to resist a change of direction as predicted by Newton’s second law
-The vertical stabilizer provides the aircraft with directional stability.
-The horizontal stabilizer provides the aircraft with longitudinal stability. That is, air moving past the tailplane resists unwanted roll around the longitudinal axis and unwanted pitch around the lateral axis.
TP3 - Explain How the Rudder Produces Yaw
-The rudder is located at the very back of the aircraft,
of the vertical stabilizer. The rudder can be turned left and right to give the pilot directional control.
-The rudder rotates the aircraft about its vertical (yaw) axis by pushing the tail to the left or to the right.
-When the rudder is turned to the right side of the fin, the moving air will push the empennage to the left, causing the aircraft to yaw to the right around its vertical axis.
-The rudder and vertical stabilizer are two different control sufaces
-The rudder is operated by the rudder bar or pedals in the cockpit. Pressure applied to the right pedal moves the left pedal downwards and vice versa. Pressure on the right rudder pedal displaces the rudder to the right into the airflow. This increases pressure on the right side and forces the tail to move to the left.
TP4 - Explain How the Elevator Controls Pitch
-Both the left and right portions of the horizontal stabilizer have a moveable control surface known as an elevator.
-The elevator, of which there is normally a left and a right section, is located on the
of the horizontal stabilizer. It is used to give the pilot lateral control.
-Raising the elevator into the moving air above the tailplane will push the empennage (tail) down, thus raising the aircraft’s nose and vice versa.
-These pitch movements take place around the lateral axis
-The pilot controls the elevator by pushing or pulling on the control column.
-Pushing the control column forward lowers the elevator into the wind passing under the tailplane, pushing the empennage up. This causes the aircraft’s nose to drop and the aircraft will descend.
Confirmation of TP1-TP4
Q1. What two stabilizers are found on the empennage?
Q2. What axial movements do the elevator and the rudder produce?
Q3. What axial movement does the vertical stabilizer or fin reduce?
Q4. What axial movement does the horizontal stabilizer or tailplane reduce?
Q5. Where is the rudder located?
Q6. What controls the rudder?
Q7. Where is the elevator control surface located?
Q8. How does the pilot operate the elevator?
One cadet is designated the pilot and is seated in the clear view of the standing cadets. The seated cadet, who is the pilot, will pretend to move pedals and pretend to move a control column, but only one at a time.
Divide the remainder of the class into “rudders” and “elevators”. The standing cadets must mimic the correct moving control surface with their right arm (elevator: up and down) or left arm (rudder: left and right). After a minute of imaginary flight, ask the cadets to perform both elevator and rudder movements with both right and
left hands simultaneously.
TP6 - Identify the Wing Control Surfaces
#2 In the Picture
-The surfaces that control roll are located near the ends of the wings on the trailing edge. They are called ailerons.
-The down-going aileron increases the wing’s lift and the up-going aileron decreases the wing’s lift (Lower speed more pressure vice versa).
Therefore, the left wing’s lift increases and the right wing’s lift decreases.
-To recover from the roll, the ailerons must be applied in the opposite direction until the aircraft is level and the ailerons are then again neutralized for level flight.
-Flaps are located nearer the fuselage on the trailing edge of the wing. Both flaps operate together. They are normally used for landing
-They are raised together and they are lowered together with one control mechanism. Flaps are lowered to create lift and to slow the aircraft. More lift at slower speeds
-When they are lowered into the air moving past the under-surface of the wing, they slow the air and the air pushes them up, creating lift while simultaneously slowing the aircraft by creating drag. When fully lowered, the drag created exceeds the lift generated.
#7 & 8 In the picture
TP7 - Explain the Operation of Ailerons
-Ailerons lift one wing and lower the opposite wing simultaneously as a single cockpit control is operated to produce roll.
-When the control column is moved to the right, the left aileron moves down and the right aileron moves up so the aircraft rolls to the right into a banked position and vice versa
-When the pilot wants to stop the roll and stay in a banked position, the control column is returned to center and the ailerons retract. To recover from the roll into a level position, the ailerons must be extended into the opposite directions. They are then “retracted” (leveled) for level flight.
TP8 - Explain the Operation of Flaps
-Both flaps operate together. They are raised together and lowered together. When they are lowered into the air moving past the under-surface of the wing, they slow the air and the air pushes them up, creating lift while simultaneously slowing the aircraft by creating drag. When fully lowered, the drag created exceeds the lift generated (normally doesn't happen).
-Flaps allow for shorter and safer landings. It is operated by a knob in the cockpit that is set at a predetermined degree setting (5-40 degrees and it goes by 5s) Flaps allow for shorter and safer landings.
-Just like different wing designs there are also different flap designs
Q1. Which two wing control surfaces always move in opposite directions?
Q2. What axial movement do ailerons control?
Q3. How do flaps help with landings?
Q5. How does the pilot control the ailerons?
Q1. Where are an aircraft’s flaps located?
Q6. What are flaps used for?
Q7. How do flaps affect an aircraft’s landing performance?
TP9 - Explain the Use of Trim Tabs
-Trim tabs are often found on the trailing edge of the rudder, the elevators and on the ailerons. Often used with the autopilot system
-Trim tabs were developed to hold control surfaces in position without constant control pressure from the pilot.
-When the pilot has set a course in a
, the control surfaces often have to stay in a working position for long periods of time. To save the pilot from having to do this, trim tabs were invented.
-A trim tab is a small, adjustable control surface that can be extended from the trailing edge of an aircraft’s control surface. So, it is a control surface that is hinged onto a larger control surface. The wind, pushing on the trim tab when it is extended, provides the force necessary to hold the aircraft’s main control surface in position.
TP10 - Explain the Use of Dynamically Balanced Control Surfaces
-Dynamically balanced control surfaces were developed to make pilots’ work easier. These surfaces use air pressure to help move the controls by having a portion of the control surface in front of its own hinge to catch the passing air.
-This takes the load off the pilot’s control mechanism. That way, the wind itself helps push the control surface into the position that the pilot has selected, making the controls feel lighter.
*NOTE* ^ Most jet powered aircraft use hydraulic boosted control systems
-In fighter aircraft the elevators also act as the ailerons
-Thrust vectoring engines also helps with maneuverability