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Amazing Holes

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Joel Koh

on 10 July 2013

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Transcript of Amazing Holes

EL Project Presentation 2013
Holes- Part One
There are lots of the holes in the world. With these, come numerous amount of unsolvable (as of yet) mysteries.
Holes- Part Two
Main Point
Black Holes
White Holes
Worm Holes

Members: Current Status
Matthew Leong (Leader)
Teoh Xu En
Joel Koh
Ho Zhe Yuan
Lo Yan
Black Hole -> Worm Hole -> White Hole
Black Hole
A Black Hole
How about Holes?
I Just Say
One way ticket to Nowhere
Star Evolution
Nuclear Fission
Schwarzchild Radius
Space-Time Fabric
Exotic matter

Black Hole

-Not a Inter-National Space Toilet Bowl
Reason: Only some Black Holes spiral or rotate and look like a Black Hole. Look under No Hair Theorem for more Info.

Black Hole
-Black Hole collapses upon it's immense gravity. But why can't we see it?
-It then pulls everything towards itself. We usually do not move towards the black hole as the universe expands faster than the speed of light.
-(So, in a sense, we stay in the same position or move away a little.)
-We will move towards the black hole if we are very close or the Black Hole is in our system.
No Hair Theorem:

Mass | Angular Momentum | Charge
/ | |
/ | / |
/ | / | /

/ | | /
Different kind of holes are :
-Team Rocket Pit Holes
-Bottomless Holes

Fascinating things of the World

A White hole
Worm Hole
Black Hole
We say that light cannot escape the black hole gravity. People misunderstand the saying. Light that enters a black hole cannot escape.
If the star is large enough, why did not it become a Black Hole in the earlier stages of it's life?
Worm Hole
Snakes' cousin's Hole
String Theory, derived from Einstein General Relativity--> Multi-verse (Multiple Universe)
Traveling through Worm Hole results in either/or:
-Time Travel
-Inter-Universal Travel

- Star
- Gravity
- Energy
We cannot travel to the neareat black hole to Earth, 1600 light years away.
1600ly = 299792458 x 60(s) x60(min) x24(h) x 365.25(days) x 1600
A theoretical passageway in space between a black hole and a white hole that would link one location/time with another that is shorter in distance or duration that would other wise be expected.
Why can't we travel through a wormhole?
allows faster-than-light or superluminal travel through space and time
believed too unstable for travel as it last only for an instant of time before collapsing, creating a singularity
believed that a truly advanced race may be able to stabilize a wormhole using "exotic matter"

In lay man terms, a shortcut through space and/or time
Exotic matter
Hypothetical matter that contains negative energy, which is energy associated with negative
Negative mass possesses strange properties and produces strange results
which may contradict the usual perceptions of matter.
Examples of effects of negative mass
An object with negative inertial mass and positive electric charge would accelerate away from objects with negative charge, and towards objects with positive charge, which is the opposite of the normal rule that like charges repel and opposite charges attract.
- Why is man-hole cover round?
- Why is Team Rocket Pit-Hole always take time to be activated?
- Is it possible to even have a bottomless holes?
Type of Blackhole
White Hole
White Hole
A hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside ,but from which matter and light have the ability to escape
Reverse of Black Hole
Has the property of black hole.
They attract matter like any other mass, but objects falling towards a white hole would never actually reach the white hole's event horizon
In 1971, an astrophysicist, Robert Hjellming.

Published a paper in Nature proposing that white holes could be more than mirror images of their black counterparts.
Black Hole
White Hole
Worm Hole
White Hole
We learnt that:
-Black Hole are not Inter-Space Toilet Bowl/Vacuum Cleaner.

-A Worm Hole is a hypothetical passage way through space/time.
-A White Hole is a hypothetical hole
that is opposite of Black Hole but possesses it's characteristics.
The End
Discovered by Sir Issac Newton

Brief Intro: Sat under an apple tree, due to gravity the apple fall. Hit his head, a weird ideas were born. Tadaa!!!

Similar to magnetic force but gravity have no limit. Unlike magnetic force, gravity can reach anywhere, also, it has no poles.
Dictionary Content
Equation for Gravity
F is Gravitational constant
M1 is the mass of a smaller object
M2 is the mass of a larger object
R2 is the distance between the 2 object square rooted

Star Evolution
Our Star
Larger Star
Supernova: Type 1 & 2
Nuclear Fission
A process where the star get energy from.
For the Sun, it is Proton-Proton Chain. Occurs only in smaller sized stars.
Also, there are the CNO cycle and Triple-alpha process.
CNO Cycle
a Chain
Similar to PP chain but what it is uses hydrogen, oxygen and carbon
Triple-Alpha process is the fusion of heavier
elements. The heaviest element it goes is Fe^59

Uses Hydrogen atom and fuses into Helium Atom
So what should we choose as our topic?
Schwarzchild Radius
An example: Black Hole
An spherical object mass is being compress till the escape velocity, also known as Gravity , is the speed of light, it will become a black hole.

Being name after a German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild who calculated this exact solution for the theory of general relativity in 1915.
Space-Time Fabric
If you have watch any anime with time reversal or distortion in time, it mean disrupting the space-time. Some anime call it space time fabric. Anyway...

Space-Time is interpreted as space in 3 dimension and Time in 1 dimension
Reasons why Black Hole is believe is able to teleport and/or time-travel.
No. 1
Theory of Relativity
states that, travelling
at the speed of light, time will slow down for you, until it stop.
Why is that so?
If you have notice, if you are travelling in a vehicle,
the faster you travel, the slower you find time move.
But it is only if u are travelling at a constant speed.
What does that mean?
If your speed is increasing, then this theory does not apply.
No. 2
Theory of relativity
also states that
travelling faster than the speed of light, time go back for you.
Only backwards
Why is that so?
If travelling at the speed of light, time slow for you, until it stop. So if you travel faster than the speed of light, time will go back for you
This is all included in the equation of General Relativity
So do not question the equation of the God of Science
Which is Albert Einstein
Or it will make Joel Angry
\ | /
So why is it not possible to travel to the Future?
Most Scientists believe that it is not theoretically possible to travel to the Future.
One Scientist very influencing today say although time travel is in the equation of General Relativity, but we cannot travel back to the past to change history as history is already made. He say travelling to the future is in the question though.
He say even if we are able to travel to the past, it is not our past. It is the past of other parallel universe, where time flow slower.
= 15 137 168 756 129 280 000m
= 15 137 168 756 129 280 km
= 15.1 x 10^18m
1 600ly= 15 137 168 756 129 280 000m
Script: Joel Koh
Slides: Joel Koh, Matthew,
Xu En
Information: Joel Koh,
Matthew, Xu En, Zhe Yuan
Thank You

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