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Transcript of European Explorers
Beginning of Exploration
was the first nation to begin exploring the outside world. It did so because it lacked a port on the
, which meant that it could not share in the trade with Asia.
The goal of this trade was to get gold from West Africa.
was sent to explore the southernmost part of Africa and then sail into the Indian Ocean.
Dias ran into a two-week storm that sent him off course and sent him
After it died down, Dias found land again and passed a cape, which was named the
Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco de Gama
In July 1497,
Vasco de Gama
was sent on another expedition.
Rather than sailing along the coast of Africa, da Gama took a wide semicircular sweep through the Atlantic Ocean. He was hoping to catch a
that he thought would take him past the Cape of Good Hope safely.
Vasco da Gama became the first European to sail to
along the eastern sea route.
A new idea for reaching Asia was brought forth by
His idea was to sail
to get to Asia.
In the 1400s most people believed the world was
, but the difficulty was calculating the size of the Earth.
Columbus based his size on the work of the Greek astronomer
. According to Columbus’s calculations, Asia was 2,760 miles from Europe. In reality, the Earth is
miles around at the Equator.
Prince Henry and Portugal
of Portugal set up a center for exploration at Sarges on the southern tip of the country. He became known as
Henry the Navigator.
He never intended to be an explorer, instead he planned the voyages and then analyzed to the
that his crew brought home.
He also created a “
school of navigation
”, where experts trained new explorers and the maps were updated.
At the urging of King John II, Portuguese sea captains began to explore further south along the African coast.
In 9th and 10th centuries, the
visited Iceland and Greenland.
In about 1000,
explored land west of Greenland. This land was called
Historians believe that this area was
Columbus and Spain
In 1492, Columbus needed a sponsor to finance his voyage.
was looking to get in on the Asian trade.
, a devout Christian, was convinced by her husband,
, and his finance minister to support the expedition.
The queen agreed for two reasons:
Columbus promised to bring
to any land he found.
Spain would become
through the trade that would open up.
location of Prince Henry's school of navigation
The location where Queen Isabella gave Columbus permission to sail west
August 3, 1492,
Columbus set out with three ships: the Nina, the Pinta and the
. There were about
sailors aboard the three ships and they had a six-month supply of provisions.
On October 12, 1492, a lookout spotted land on the horizon. It was an island that was a part of a group of islands now-called the
Map of world according to Christopher Columbus
Columbus went ashore, claimed the land for Spain, and called it
. Columbus explored the area for three months and was convinced that he had reached the
Columbus called the local people
but he did not realize that he had reached the
Columbus returned triumphantly to Spain, where he received great honor and the king and queen agreed to finance future voyages. He also earned the title
Admiral of the Ocean Sea.
more voyages from Spain.
During these voyages he explored the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, and
His later explorations made it clear that Columbus had found an area of the Earth that was
Columbus died on May 20, 1506 believing that he had reached
Spain vs. Portugal
Both Portugal and Spain wanted to protect their land claims in the Americas.
So they turned to
Pope Alexander VI.
He created an imaginary
line of demarcation
. Spain would control all lands
of the line, and Portugal would control all lands
of the line.
Portugal protested because the line favored Spain. A year later they signed the
Treaty of Tordasillas,
which moved the line farther west.
sailed along the coast of South America.
He concluded that it was a continent and not part of
European geographers soon began calling the land
in honor of him.
reached the southern tip of South America.
He sailed around the tip of the land and into a new ocean. The waters were calm and peaceful – pacifico in Spanish – that he named the ocean the
Magellan later died in the Philippine Islands, but his crew continued west on the journey, arriving back in Spain in 1522. They became the first known people to
– or sail around – the world.
Purple line: Treaty of Tordasillas