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European Explorers

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Marisa Cocokios

on 10 August 2016

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Transcript of European Explorers

European Explorers
Beginning of Exploration

Portugal
was the first nation to begin exploring the outside world. It did so because it lacked a port on the
Mediterranean Sea
, which meant that it could not share in the trade with Asia.
The goal of this trade was to get gold from West Africa.

Bartholomeau Dias
In 1487,
Bartholomeau Dias
was sent to explore the southernmost part of Africa and then sail into the Indian Ocean.
Dias ran into a two-week storm that sent him off course and sent him
southward
.
After it died down, Dias found land again and passed a cape, which was named the
Cape of Good Hope.


Vasco de Gama
In July 1497,
Vasco de Gama
was sent on another expedition.
Rather than sailing along the coast of Africa, da Gama took a wide semicircular sweep through the Atlantic Ocean. He was hoping to catch a
current
that he thought would take him past the Cape of Good Hope safely.
Vasco da Gama became the first European to sail to
India
along the eastern sea route.


Christopher Columbus
A new idea for reaching Asia was brought forth by
Christopher Columbus
.
His idea was to sail
west
to get to Asia.
In the 1400s most people believed the world was
round
, but the difficulty was calculating the size of the Earth.
Columbus based his size on the work of the Greek astronomer
Ptolemy
. According to Columbus’s calculations, Asia was 2,760 miles from Europe. In reality, the Earth is
25,000
miles around at the Equator.


Prince Henry and Portugal
Prince Henry
of Portugal set up a center for exploration at Sarges on the southern tip of the country. He became known as
Henry the Navigator.
He never intended to be an explorer, instead he planned the voyages and then analyzed to the
reports
that his crew brought home.

He also created a “
school of navigation
”, where experts trained new explorers and the maps were updated.
At the urging of King John II, Portuguese sea captains began to explore further south along the African coast.


The Vikings
In 9th and 10th centuries, the
Vikings
visited Iceland and Greenland.
In about 1000,
Leif Eriksson
explored land west of Greenland. This land was called
Vinland
.
Historians believe that this area was
North America.


Columbus and Spain
In 1492, Columbus needed a sponsor to finance his voyage.
Spain
was looking to get in on the Asian trade.
Queen Isabella
, a devout Christian, was convinced by her husband,
King Ferdinand
, and his finance minister to support the expedition.

The queen agreed for two reasons:
Columbus promised to bring
Christianity
to any land he found.
Spain would become
wealthy
through the trade that would open up.


Sagres, Portugal
location of Prince Henry's school of navigation
The location where Queen Isabella gave Columbus permission to sail west
His travels
On
August 3, 1492,
Columbus set out with three ships: the Nina, the Pinta and the
Santa Maria
. There were about
90
sailors aboard the three ships and they had a six-month supply of provisions.



On October 12, 1492, a lookout spotted land on the horizon. It was an island that was a part of a group of islands now-called the
Bahamas
.


Map of world according to Christopher Columbus
Landing
Columbus went ashore, claimed the land for Spain, and called it
San Salvador
. Columbus explored the area for three months and was convinced that he had reached the
East Indies
.

Columbus called the local people
Indians
but he did not realize that he had reached the
Americas
.
Columbus returned triumphantly to Spain, where he received great honor and the king and queen agreed to finance future voyages. He also earned the title
Admiral of the Ocean Sea.


Columbus made
3
more voyages from Spain.
During these voyages he explored the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, and
Jamaica
.
His later explorations made it clear that Columbus had found an area of the Earth that was
unknown
to Europeans.
Columbus died on May 20, 1506 believing that he had reached
Asia
.


Spain vs. Portugal
Both Portugal and Spain wanted to protect their land claims in the Americas.
So they turned to
Pope Alexander VI.
He created an imaginary
line of demarcation
. Spain would control all lands
west
of the line, and Portugal would control all lands
east
of the line.
Portugal protested because the line favored Spain. A year later they signed the
Treaty of Tordasillas,
which moved the line farther west.


Amerigo Vespucci
In 1502,
Amerigo Vespucci
sailed along the coast of South America.

He concluded that it was a continent and not part of
Asia
.
European geographers soon began calling the land
America
in honor of him.


Ferdinand Magellan
In 1520,
Ferdinand Magellan
reached the southern tip of South America.

He sailed around the tip of the land and into a new ocean. The waters were calm and peaceful – pacifico in Spanish – that he named the ocean the
Pacific
.
Magellan later died in the Philippine Islands, but his crew continued west on the journey, arriving back in Spain in 1522. They became the first known people to
circumnavigate
– or sail around – the world.


Purple line: Treaty of Tordasillas
Full transcript