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Science Presentation

Jeremy Singh

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Astronomy

- the Evening Star / Morning Star -
By Jeremy Singh
Before We Begin...
Planet Remembrance
My Very Excellent Method Just Speeds Up Naming Planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, (Pluto?)
- the swift planet -
no moons
extremely hot!
(Temperatures reach up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit during the day, and 300 degrees Fahrenheit at night.)
gets its nickname for the speed of its revolution.
(revolves around the Sun in 88 days, yet rotates so slowly)
36 million miles from the sun
One Other Thing!
Planet Layout
A guide to show you where to find things on each planet
Planet Name
number order in the Solar System
planetary symbol
- planet nickname -
Info Will Be Displayed Here!
guide to the next area/ planet
Part 1: Planets
- The Evening Star / Morning Star-
no moons
(just like mercury)
the hottest of the planets
gets its nickname from being extremely bright
(yep! You go, Venus!)
highly volcanic
( caution )
93 million miles from the sun
your so tiny!
It is now considered the smallest planet
(Sorry Pluto)
-Next Planet: Venus -
you were always a bright one
rotates completely every 243 days
( average temp. reach up to 850 degrees Fahrenheit)
- Next Planet: Earth -
- The Blue Planet -
hey little blue
The Name is Terra!
planet cartoon
4.5 billion years old
(talk about an oldie)
93 million miles from the Sun on average
(so far away...)
Has a protective atmosphere
Is tilted roughly 66 degrees
There is no universally accepted theory as how Earth was formed
(so many arguments!)
- Next Planet: Mars -
(but first: Luna!)
Our Moon
- Luna -
orbits around the Earth every 29.5 days
is a natural satellite
Believed to have formed by an impact that broke off of Earth and reformed
slows down the rate of Earth's rotation 15 milliseconds a year
-Now to Mars-
-The Red Planet-
Has a thinner atmosphere than Earth
Includes the biggest volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons
There is no surface water
Has two moons, Phobos + Deimos
Has seasons, similar to Earth
- Next Planet: Jupiter -
-The Giant Among Giants -
so far away...
Has rings
at least
63 moons
Has a dark red spot which is a storm that's been raging for 300 years.
Largest planet in our Solar System
(hence the nickname)
Completes a revolution every 12 years
Is made of gas and held together by a large gravity field
- Next Planet: Saturn -
- The Ringed Planet/ Lord of the Rings -
(LOL, get it? Rings?)
at least
18, but up to 56 moons
Located 886 million miles from the Sun
Wind speeds can reach up to 1,100
(Take the top
speed of Hurricane Katrina and multiply it times 5!)
A day on Saturn = 10 hours, 14 minutes
Has rings visible with a telescope
are rings!)
- Next Planet: Neptune -
- The Bull's Eye Planet -
"just keep cool and keep spinning the wrong way"
spins sideways;Theorized to have been hit by a comet or meteor
Has thin rings
(still visible unlike Jupiter...)
Average temp: -360 degrees F
One year on Uranus = 84 years
Has 27, all of which are named after Shakespeare characters + Alexander Pope
(Miranda, Titania, Ariel, Oberon, Umbriel,Cordelia,etc...)
Voyager is the only probe to visit the planet
- Next Planet: Neptune -
- The Big Blue Planet/ The Last of The Gas Giants -
(Galilean Moons - Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto)
(including Titan and Rhea.)
Has very strong winds.
(up to 400 mph)
Has a Great Dark Spot.
(this planet sounds like one I've seen before.)
Has 13 moons.
(including Triton. Get it?)
One Neptune year = 165 years
Has three rings.
(and their named Adams, Leverrier, Galle)
Uranus's twin
(Hmm... only
a little
- Before we begin -
This Next Story...
This next story is really, really sad. If your emotional, please step out of the room now. Any further questions must be left until after the story.
- Thank You -
The Story of Pluto
In August of 2006, Pluto was officially repealed of its planetary status. The IAU (International Astronomical Union) came up with a new criteria of 3 rules that would define a planet.
1. The object should orbit the sun
2. The object should be spherical
3. There should be no other objects in the revolving object's orbit.
Pluto failed to comply with 1 of the criteria and is now labeled as a 'dwarf planet'. Pluto is realistically 1 out of thousands of space objects in the Kuiper Belt. Therefore, Pluto is no longer a planet.
Part 2: Space Objects
In this section, we cover the following:
Meteoroids, Meteorites, Meteors, Comets, Asteroids
Life of A Star
1. Stellar Nebula
The life of a star begins when a stellar nebula occurs. (Nebula is the gas and dust clouds that can create stars)
2A. Average Star
2B. Massive Star
Depending on time, the star can turn out average or massive (bigger than our Sun)
3. Red Giant
3. Red Super Giant
A red giant occurs when an average star runs out of hydrogen to fuel nuclear fusion.
A red super-giant occurs when a massive star loses hydrogen to fuel nuclear fusion, so it expands. (They are the largest stars in the universe.
4. Supernova
A supernova occurs when a massive star explodes
4. Planetary Nebula
A planetary nebula occurs when a ring of nebula forms around an aging star.
5. White Dwarf
The final stage of an average star is the white dwarf, which is a planet- sized star that's lost all nuclear fusion and layers as a star.
5A. Black Hole
If a supernova becomes unstable, gravity increases extremely and a black hole is formed. (nothing can escape)
5B. Neutron Star
When a supernova collapses and a black hole is not created, a small lifeless neutron star is formed.
The Sun
Hey! It's the real me!
Sun = 109 x larger than Earth
Is about 4.5 billion years old
Is 27,000,000 degrees F
Is our solar system's closest star
Has layers including:
1. Core
2. Radiation Zone
3. Convection Zone
4. Photosphere
5. Chromosphere
6. Corona
Asteroids, Meteoroids,Meteors, and Meteorites
w/ visual to help with remembrance
Large Space Material that can be caught in orbit
- Fun Fact: Did you know asteroids can have moons? In 1993, the spacecraft Galileo did a flyby of the asteroid 243 Ida and discovered its moon, Dactyl. -
A small Asteroid
- Fun Fact: A small percentage of meteoroids fly on a path that goes through the Earth's atmosphere and back out again. Those are called Earth - Grazing Fireballs. -
A space object that enters the atmosphere
- Fun Fact: Meteors are more easily seen during lower light conditions during the night. -
A meteor that hits the surface
- Fun Fact: There is a story about a meteorite that landed in Egypt and hit a dog. The Naklah Dog has been an astronomy legend ever since then. No one has ever recovered remains or discovered the Meteorite that hit the dog... -
Comets & Perseids
Icy Space Objects that have two tails and glow
A specific Meteor Shower associated with the comet, Swift - Tuttle.
Our Galaxy and Our Universe
The name of our Galaxy is the Mily Way. It is a spiral galaxy, one of the three types of Galaxies.
Galaxy Types:
Our universe is endless. It contains so many stars, we haven't discovered. It has other planets, we've never been to. It may have life, that we may never see. With new types of tecnology being created, we are learning more about our universe each day.
Part 3: Astronomical Math & Technology
In this section, we cover the many basic types of math and tecnology that go into studying space.
- Fun Fact: Leftover material from comets can create meteor showers. A common one to Earth is the Perseid Meteor Shower, when leftovers of the comet Swift - Tuttle enter the Earth's atmosphere. -
Light Years
that light can travel in a year.
Light Years are frequently used to measure distance between stars and galaxies.
Light travels at 300,000 km/s
To measure distance between relatively close stars, they use Stellar Parallax.
Parallax - the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different positions.
Mass, Weight, and Distance
feat. Gravitu Effects
Mass -
Mass depends on gravity. If your mass doubles, gravity pulls twice as hard. However, the farther you are from the center of the planet, the weaker the pull of gravity between you and the planet.
Distance -
The more distance you put between yourself and a planet, the weaker the pull of gravity. For example, if you double your distance from the planet, the force drops to 1/4. Triple? 1/9.
Other Examples:
4x = 1/16
5x = 1/25
6x = 1/36
7x = 1/49
8x = 1/64
9x = 1/81
10x = 1/100
Weight -
Weight is the pull of gravity between you and the spacial body your standing on. A few different things can define the amount of gravity that pulls on you.
Weight on Other Planets
To calculate weight on a different planet, let's start with basic facts. On the last part, we learned mass affected the pull of gravity as well as distance from the core. Surface gravity also comes into play. If we made a formula, it would look like this:
W x SG = W2
(Weight times x Surface Gravity on other planet = Weight on other planet.)
For example, the pull of gravity on Mercury is 38% of Earth's so plug in the numbers and solve:
86 x 0.38 = 32.68
Weight on Mercury = 32. 7
(On Exploratorium, it was 32. 5, so relatively close)
Yep, this is my weight!
Jupiter's pull of gravity is 234% of Earth's:
86 x 2.34 = 201.24
Weight on Jupiter = 201.2
( On Exploratorium, it was 203.3, so again, relatively close.)
Why this formula works:
In your Earth weight, you have already measured:
1) Your Mass
2) Surface Gravity (distance)
When we calcuate the percent of gravtiy on a different planet, we measure:
1) planet mass
2) planet surface gravity (distance)
In this equation: W x SG = W2
Your Mass + Distance
Planet Mass + Distance
Weight on Other Planet
- measured as if on the surface
- measured as if on the surface
Why the Weight is Different
Each planet has a different mass, which affects the gravitational pull greatly
Venus has a much smaller mass than Earth and Saturn, so it would have the least amount of gravitational pull of the 3 planets. And vice versa for Saturn. Saturn has a much greater mass than the other two planets, so therefore it has the greatest gravitational pull of the 3 planets. (meaning greater weight!)
Tools in Space
w/ visual to help rememberance
Space Probes
A man - made object that can travel to other planets and beyond that has instruments to gather data and send it back to Earth.
- Fun Fact: Aboard the space probe Voyager 1 is a "Golden Record". It holds 115 images, every-day sounds, and spoken greetings from 55 languages. -
any spacial object that revolves around another. (comets, moons, etc.)
Human - Made
an object created by humans that revolves around Earth that has instruents to gather and send data back to Earth.
- Fun Fact: Satellites travel at 18,000 mph -
International Space Station
Is a labratory for long - term space studies
Is also used as a space port
Has more livable room than a 6 bedroom house, 2 bathrooms, a gymnasium, and a 360 - degree bay window
Part 4: STAR Prompts, Orbital Table, and FUN FACTS!
use convex lenses
use a curved mirror
Studies radio wavelengths traveling through space. It appears to look like a massive dish for a television
In this section:
Table of Planet Orbit Times
Fun Facts!
1) Classify the planets into two categories and tell how each planet fit the criterion.

Group A
Group B
The planets in Group A (inner planets) a fit into their category because they do not have rings. The planets in group B are alike because they all have a ring system of some sort.
2) Justify whether you agree or disagree with the reasons scientist gave for not considering Pluto a planet any more.
The Debate on Pluto
Why I Agree
Why I Disagree
I'm torn on which side I'm on about the Pluto debate, so I decided to show reasoning of why I agree and disagree on the decision about Pluto.
I think that Pluto's always had a lot of controversy about its planetary status. I always thought Pluto seemed odd for a planet and alwways wondered, "What in the world? Why is there a terestrial planet way out there?" So for a while, I believed Pluto shouldn't be a planet.
I don't think the criteria is 'definitive' enough to characterize a planet. I think they should have better reasoning of why it makes a good criteria for a planet. Plus the fact, for the 1st 2 years of schooling, I had always learned Pluto was a Planet and the older generation can agree. So I think maybe Pluto should be a planet (because between you and me, criterion #3 doesn't make sense to me.)
Planet Name
Revolution Times
Planetary Orbital Table
Gives info on:
1) How long a day is on the planet (rotation)
2) How long a year is on the planet (revolution)
23 hours 56 minutes
58 days 15 hours
243 days
24 hours 39 minutes
9.9 hours
10 hours 39 minutes
17 hours 14 minutes
16 hours 6 minutes
87. 97 days
224.7 days
365.26 days
To Check Your Age on Other Planets, click the link below:
1.88 years
11.86 years
29.46 years
84.01 years
164.19 years
- Fun Facts -
Seasons on Uranus Last 20 years
There are 5 known dwarf planetes in our Solar System including,
, and
An Earth - like planet that orbits a star at just the right distance for life is called a '
Goldilocks Planet
Planet X is actually the name of a project to find a trans - Neptunian planet
The sun is a yellow dwarf star. The largest type of star is called a blue supergiant.
The End
( technically, astronomy never ends!)
To find out your weight on another planet w/o having to do the work, click the link below:
Gaining Planetary Status
13.7 billion years ago
- (Theoratically) The Big Bang theory occurred, creating the sun and the planets of the Solar System as well as stimulated life on Earth. -
Big Bang
2nd millenium, BC
Planet Identity
- What was considered planets ( Mercury and Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) were identified by Babylonian astronomers.
Heliocentric Model
- when the planets were identified -
- Nicolas Copernicus releases the Heliocentric Model, showing how Earth was also a planet and revolved around the Sun with the other planets. -
April 26, 1781
Uranus Discovery
- German - born British Astronomer, William Herschel discover Uranus, initially believing it to be a comet. -
September 23, 1846
Neptune Discovery
- John Gottfried Galle and Urbain Le Verrier discover the planetary body known today as Neptune. -
February 18, 1930
Pluto Discovery
- American Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh first discovered the planet known as Pluto. -
August 2006
Dwarf Planet Pluto
- In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union deems Pluto no longer a planet. It received the label, 'dwarf planet'.
Planetary Translation
- A key to the planet's names-
Planet Name
Who It's named after
patron god of financial gain, messages/communication, and guided souls to the underworld.
(Greek) Hermes, messenger of the gods
goddess of love and beauty.
(Greek) Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty
derived from the word old English and German words that meant ground or soil.
god of war.
(Greek) Ares, god of war.
king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder.
(Greek) Zeus, kind of the gods and god of lightning
a god in ancient roman religion. Of time and generation.
greek god personifying the sky.
(Roman) Caelus, primal god of the sky
god of the seas and freshwater.
(Greek) Poseidon, god of the seas ; a primal god.
ruler of the underworld.
(Greek) Hades, god of the underworld" a primal god.
Ceres is the only dwarf planet of the inner solar System and was once thought to be the 8th planet of the Solar System.
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