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The Shah of Iran-His Role in Government and His Overthrow
Transcript of The Shah of Iran-His Role in Government and His Overthrow
Iran's large supply of oil was wanted by the United States, Great Britain, and Russia.
He was also trapped in the middle of struggle between the pro-Soviet Tudeh Party, who wanted a social revolution without a Shah, and the pro-British National Will Party, who wanted the Shah but no social revolution.
The Shah was not a fan of either side. Part 3: His Government Following WW2, the Soviet Union did not remove their troops as promised, and instead started helping the Persian Communist Party setup a separate government in the Azerbaijan Province.
Iran brought the issue to the recently formed United Nations, and the Soviet Union troops left Azerbaijan.
Afterwords, the Shah's popularity rose. Because Iran denied the Soviet Union oil rights, the National Front Party, led by Dr. Mosaddeq, felt that the government should also take away Great Britain's oil rights.
In 1951, Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq was named the Prime Minister of Iran.
By 1953, the country was in crisis, and Tudeh Party started gaining momentum.
A coup, funded by the American Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.) and the British Secret Intelligence Service (S.I.S.), was planned to depose Mosaddeq.
The coup failed and the Shah and his second wife were forced to flee Iran and go to Baghdad, and later Rome.
A second coup was staged, and Mosaddeq was overthrown nine days later with U.S. aid.
The Shah was then returned to Iran. Part 2: His Father's Rise to Power Reza Pahlavi overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar Dynasty, in the 1921 coup d'état, with British help.
He became Reza Shah Pahlavi in December, 1925.
However, he did not have his coronation until April of the following year.
This was the same ceremony in which his son was named the crown prince. Land was distributed among peasants.
The government gained control of forests and water.
Profit-sharing plans were established for workers.
Iranian women were given more freedom.
Civil service programs were established.
New industries were created.
There was an emphasis on the literacy of the country's population.
Iran became one of the most stable Middle Eastern Countries. The White Revolution In 1967, at age 48 and after spending twenty-six years as Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was crowned His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Aryamehr, Shahanshah of Iran.
His third wife was crowned as the empress of Iran.
She was the first empress in Iran since the seventh century's coming of Islam.
Their six-year-old son, Reza, was declared the crown prince. He was the same age his father was when he was named crown prince. Throughout the 1970s, Iran exercised a great amount of world power due to its abundance of oil.
Iran became the strongest country militarily in the Middle East.
The Shah's authority knew no bounds, and soon, his popularity began decreasing, particularly among Muslim followers of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
The wealth from the vast oil supply was distributed unequally. The government was corrupt and political turmoil emerged.
The pro-Western foreign policies maintained by the Shah, were not like by internal religious clergy, who criticized the Shah.
Most of the Shah's reforms during the White Revolution, particularly women's suffrage, did not sit well with conservative Muslims.
Many Iranians saw him as being controlled by the west.
The Shah was also the first Muslim leader to recognized the state of Israel. Part 5: Beginning of the End The Shah of Iran had three wives during his lifetime:
The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt. The two were married in 1939 and got and Egyptian divorce in 1945 and a Iranian Divorce in 1948. They had one daughter together.
His second wife was Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiari. She was the daughter of the Iranian ambassador to West Germany. They got married in 1951, and divorced in 1958 due to her inability to bear children.
The Shah's third wife was Farah Diba, teh daughter of Captain i the Imperial Iranian Army. They were married in 1959. Together, they had four children, two sons and two daughters. She is the only one of the Shah's wives to give him a male heir. She is also the only of his wives to have not gotten divorced from him as she was widowed in 1980. Part 4: The Three Wives of the Shah of Iran Part 6: The Islamic Revolution Born: October 26, 1919 as Mohammad Reza PahlaviBorn as a non-royal because his father, Reza Pahlavi, did not become Shah until 1925.
Was named crown prince at age 6.
Studied in Switzerland at the Institut Le Rosey.Later attended Tehran's Military College. Part 1: Childhood As the popularity of the Shah decreased, he became increasingly repressive.
He used his secret police, the SAVAK, to stop domestic conflicts.
Opposition to the Shah was led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who was exiled in Paris at the time.
He spread his message through cassette tapes. These tapes were smuggled into Iran in small quantities, copied, and distributed throughout the country.
Iran's middle class desperately wanted more political freedom and supported the opposition.
As tensions rose and demonstrations took to the streets, the Shah and his family fled. After a short-lived period of confusion, Khomeini took control as the Supreme Leader of an Islamic theocratic regime. Part 7: Results of the Revolution Unfortunately, the revolution did not bring an increase in freedom as many Iranians had hoped, but rather the opposite.
Women lost the rights they had gained under the Shah.
If you were opposed to government, you could be tortured as mercilessly as during the Shah's reign. The Shah and his family were exiled (the second time in exile for the Shah) first to Egypt, then Morocco, the Bahamas, and Mexico.
Due to his lymphatic cancer, the Shah was allowed into the United States for medical treatment.
He died in Egypt in 1980. Part 8: Exile and Death http://teacher.scholastic.com/scholasticnews/indepth/upfront/features/index.asp?article=f091806_TP_Iran