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Energy Transfer in the Climate System

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monique salmon

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Energy Transfer in the Climate System

Energy Transfer in the Climate System
"Earth's climate is a complex system'' . Which needs different combinations of parts to function as a whole.
Scientists divided the systems into two different types: open systems and closed systems.
Open system is a system where energy and matter cross the system's boundary
Closed system is a system that allows energy but not matter to cross the system's boundary.
Feedback Loops
A
Feedback loop
is a process in which part of a system's output is returned or fed back to the input.

There are positive and negative feedback loops
Positive Feedback Loops
A positive feedback loop act to increase the effects of the interacting part which also accelerates a temperature rise.
because of the positive feedback loop a small change in the climate can lead bigger and bigger changes until the system obtains a new balance.
Negative Feedback Loops
A negative feedback loop decreases the effect of the interacting parts and helps maintain a system's balance.
checks and balances so it can prevent, slow or reverse change in the system.
Feedback loop begin with global warming but the result is a decrease in the global average temperature.
Energy Transfer in the Climate System
Energy from the sun continuously flows from Earth's atmosphere and eventually goes back into space.
Earth maintains and balances the temperature by radiating lots of energy back into space that it absorbed from the Sun.
During the time solar energy is absorbed and goes back into space wind,ocean currents,fog,rain, snow is produced
Energy Transfer Within The Climate System
The atmosphere and the hydrosphere are both essential parts of the climate system.
Both are able to absorb and store thermal energy.
Absorbing the energy and storing it creates a big impact in the atmosphere. Furthermore, energy transfers by the atmosphere regulates the temperature on earth.
How is Energy Transferred in the Atmosphere
Energy is transferred by:
1.
conduction:
the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
2.
convection
: the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
3.
radiation:
the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, esp. high-energy particles that cause ionization.
Conduction in the Atmosphere
Transfer of heat energy without any movement in the air. Conduction is caused by areas with cold and hot air. Heat is conducted to the cooler area from the hotter area.
Includes thermal energy.
Conduction happens in really low level of atmosphere by the earth's surface.
Convection in the Atmosphere
Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability or temperature difference, layer in the atmosphere.
Instability is led by different lapse rates within dry and moist air.
Includes thermal energy
Land breeze and sea breeze can be explained using convection.
Radiation in the Atmosphere
The source for atmospheric radiation is the sun.
Radiation energy is reflected, scattered, absorbed, and transmitted. Most of the energy is absorbed.
Thermal energy is the energy present in the motion of particles at a particular temperature.
How Does Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Help the Earth?
it blocks out and absorbs a lot of UV light which is very dangerous.
It also moderates the earth's temperature and keeps it stable.
Radiation brings sunlight on earth which we need in order to survive.
El Nino
means " the little boy" or Christ child in spanish.
was recognized by fisherman off the coast of south America in the 1600
El Nino is a series of climate changes that affect the pacific region, and it is characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient poor water
Usually happens in December and lasts for about 12-18 months, and occurs every 3-7 years
the most recent major event took place in 1982-1983 and 1997-1998
In tropical Pacific, trade winds generally drive the surface water westward and becomes warmer because it gets exposed to solar heating longer.
Economic Effects of El Nino (economic impacts)
cool water filled nutrients that lies along coast of Peru, gets replaced by warmer water full of depleted nutrients. which result in a dramatic reduction in marine fish and plant life.
Thermocline
is a transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and deep water layer. This is all based on temperatures.
Upwelling
is the transport of deeper water to the shallower levels.
the deeper the thermocline means that any upwelling that does occur is unable to tap into rich nutrients found in deeper waters. The warm nutrient- poor water predominates the region and shows a decrease in fish population and plant life.
Impacts of El Nino
Effects on United States and Atlantic basin
Hurricanes
Drought
effect toward agriculture, construction, energy distribution, outdoor recreation
the most recent El Nino event began in the spring months of 1997. After 1982-1983 El Nino began recording abnormally high temperatures off the coast of Peru. It grew so much that by October of 97' it had become the strongest in 50+ years.
La Nina
la nina follows el nino events
la nina is caused by a build up of cooler- than normal waters. this process is also known as upwelling
both El nino and la nina affect patterns of rainfall and atmospheric pressure, distributes thermal energy
the last el nino and la nina was in June 2009-May 2010
La nina conditions expected between June and September, they are expected to see it before 2013 ends.
When did the most recent El nino major event occur?
What is the meaning of El nino?
why is El nino an economic impact?
What is a feedback loop?
True or False

a closed system is a system where energy and matter cross the system's boundary.
True or False


A positive feedback loop acts to increase the effects of the interacting parts and increases the temperature
True or False

the hydrosphere and the atmosphere are a non essential parts of the climate system
Name the three ways energy is transferred?
True or False

The source for atmospheric radiation is the clouds.
Energy Transfer in the Ocean
The exchange of thermal energy between ocean currents and the atmosphere has a major impact on climates around the world and on climate change. Winds create currents of water that redistribute thermal energy to the ocean surface.
The relationships between the temperature, amount of salt in the water and density of water makes a continuous cycle of twisting ocean current that mixes ocean water from the North Atlantic to the south pacific oceans. The current can also be described as "
the great ocean conveyor belt’.
This pattern of ocean circulation is also known as
thermohaline

circulation

(a three dimensional pattern of ocean circulation driven by wind, heat and salinity which is an important part of the ocean-atmosphere climate system). It takes about 1000 to 1500 years for the journey of the conveyor belt. By mixing waters from the Arctic, the Antarctic, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean, thermohaline circulation creates a global system of thermal energy distribution
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