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Copy of The Tree of Biology
Transcript of Copy of The Tree of Biology
Organicos Compuestos Organicos Cuatro Grupos Lipidos Acidos Nucleicos Proteinas Hidratos de Carbono Existen dos tipos de ácidos nucleicos: ADN (ácido desoxirribonucleico) y ARN (ácido ribonucleico). Son las moléculas que hacen el "ser", entendido en el sentido de que son el fenotipo, que es lo que caracteriza externamente a un individuo. Hidratos de Carbono Llamados carbohidratos, azúcares o glúcidos, estas sustancias
Contienen tres clases de átomos: carbono, hidrógeno y oxígeno (CHO).
Su función más importante es el aporte de energía.
Según la cantidad de moléculas que posean, se clasifican en monosacáridos, disacáridos y polisacáridos. Monosacáridos Disacáridos Polisacáridos Formados por una sola molécula que tiene 5 ó 6 carbonos.
Los monosacáridos son los hidratos de carbono más sencillos, cuya fórmula simplificada es C6H12O6.
Son hidrosolubles (se disuelven en agua) y de sabor dulce.
Algunos Ejemplos La combinación de dos moléculas de monosacáridos con separación de una molécula de agua, cuya fórmula química abreviada es C12H22O11.
(Son hidrosolubles y de sabor dulce.)
Sacarosa o azúcar común, formada por la unión de una molécula de glucosa con una de fructosa.
Lactosa o azúcar de la leche, producto de la unión de una molécula de glucosa con otra de galactosa.
Maltosa o azúcar de malta, que se forma con dos moléculas de glucosa. Se forman a partir de la unión de varias moléculas de monosacáridos. Son insolubles en agua y no tienen sabor.
Otros. Almidon Celulosa Glucógeno Se forma por la unión de una gran cantidad de moléculas de glucosa. Se acumula en los organismos vegetales y son una importante reserva de energía en esos organismos. Las semillas contienen abundancia en almidón. Está presente en la pared de las células vegetales, siendo su función darle sostén a las plantas. El algodón y el papel están formados de celulosa más o menos pura. Un polisacárido de los animales y, como el almidón y la celulosa, se forma a partir de la unión de un gran número de moléculas de glucosa. Lípidos Estructural
Reserva de energía
Repelentes del agua
Transporte Ácidos Nucleicos Proteínas En Síntesis... Aminoácidos Esenciales Aminoácidos NO esenciales Las funciones que tienen las proteínas en el organismo son... El ácido ribonucleico (ARN) y el ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN) son ácidos nucleicos. El ADN es una enorme molécula (macromolécula) que se transmite de una generación a otra. Los genes, fragmentos de ADN, tienen instrucciones que determinan las características de un organismo, ya que posee toda la información genética y la transmite a la descendencia. El ARN es una macromolécula parecida al ADN que actúa como intermediaria al traducir las instrucciones presentes en los genes para la síntesis de proteínas. Los ácidos nucleicos son polímeros, cuyos monómeros son los llamados nucleótidos, compuestos por: El ADN es una larga macromolécula que se forma a partir de unidades llamadas nucleótidos. Cada nucleótido, a su vez, se forma a partir de fosfato, de un azúcar y de una base nitrogenada. Es decir, todo el ADN está formado por átomos de carbono, hidrógeno, oxígeno, nitrógeno y fósforo (CHONP). Al unirse, los nucleótidos forman moléculas de ADN. El ARN también está formado por los cinco átomos mencionados. Son grandes moléculas orgánicas compuestas por cuatro átomos:
oxígeno y nitrógeno (CHON)
algunas poseen azufre y fósforo (CHONSP)
Son insolubles en agua y de estructura compleja, ya que cada una de ellas tiene una forma directamente relacionada con su función biológica. Las proteínas están conformadas por aminoácidos.
20 aminoácidos diferentes se combinan para formar todas las variedades de proteínas existentes. Los aminoácidos pueden ser esenciales y no esenciales.
Presentes en la carne y en algunos vegetales, tienen que ingresar con la dieta porque el organismo no los produce. Son elaborados por el organismo y también están en los alimentos. GRACIAS! Polisacáridos & Disacáridos Tienen la propiedad de transformarse en monosacáridos cuando se les hierve en agua acidulada, porque los ácidos diluidos los hidratan, es decir, les hacen recuperar el agua que perdieron al formarse. ANTONIO SALDIVAR FERNANDO CORTES MANUEL DOMINGUEZ BIOLOGIA I
Amino Acids Double Helix Denaturation Condensation Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Glycosidic Linkage Starch Carbohydrate Glycogen Lipid Hydrolysis Dehydration Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Cells and Cell Division Somatic Cell Gamete Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell Plasmolysis Osmoregulation Osmosis Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic Nucleus Nucleuolus Ribosome Golgi Apparatus Mitochondria Chloroplast ER Smooth ER Rough ER Cytosol Endomembrane System Plastid Cristae Concentration Gradient Active Transport Passive Transport Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Turgid Centromere Sister Chromatids Chromatin Chromosome Membrane Potential Electrochemical Gradient Cotransport Exocytosis Selective Permeability Glycoprotein Fluid Mosaic Model Integral Protein Peripheral Protein Transport Proteins Plasma Membrane Transport Vesicles Gated Channels Sodium-Potassium Pump A molecule consisting of the basic amino group (NH2), the acidic carboxyl group (COOH), a hydrogen atom (-H), and an organic side group attached to the carbon atom. The building block of protein which is coded for by a codon and linked together by peptide bonds. The coiled structure of double-stranded DNA in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration with the two strands oriented in opposite directions. The process where the folding structure of a protein is altered because of exposure to certain chemical or physical factors that cause the protein to become biologically inactive; a process where the structure of a nucleic acid is disrupted, such as dissociation of a double stranded DNA into a single stranded state by heating. The process of changing a substance from a gas to a liquid or solid; the process of compacting molecules, as by DNA condensation. A simple sugar; the simplest form of carbohydrate.
A sugar that constitutes the building blocks of a more complex form of sugars such as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Ex: Fructose, glucose, ribose. A sugar (carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides, making two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis. Ex: Sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose, cellubiose. A complex carbohydrate composed of chain of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds. A covalent bond that holds a carbohydrate to another group that may or may not be another sugar. A polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. Organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; CHO. Includes starch sugar, cellulose. A branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced in the liver and muscle cells, and functions as a secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells. A fatty or waxy organic compound that is readily soluble in nonpolar solvent but not in polar solvent. Its major biological functions involve energy storage, structural component of cell membrane and cell signaling. Dehydration synthesis; a chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules. A chemical reaction in which the interaction of a compound with water results in the decomposition of that compound An organism that generally lacks a true nucleus. Ex: Bacteria, archaea. Cells characterized by having a distinct membrane-bound nucleus. Ex: Animals, plants, fungi, and portists. A reproductive cell or sex cell that contains the haploid set of chromosomes. All body cells of an organism apart from the sperm and egg cells. Having a higher osmotic pressure in a fluid relative to another fluid Having a lesser osmotic pressure in a fluid compared to another fluid. Having the same osmotic pressure and the same water potential since the two solutions have an equal concentration of water molecules. The diffusion of water. Water movement through a semipermeable membrane from high concentration to low concentration. The process of regulating water potential in order to keep fluid and elextrolyte balane within a cell or organism relative to the surrounding. The shrinking of protoplasm away from the cell wall of a plant or bacterium due to water loss from osmosis, thereby resulting in gaps between the cell wall and cell membrane. The infoldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondria which are studded with proteins and increase the surface area for the chemical reactions to occur like cellular respiration. A double membrane bound organelle involved in the synthesis and storage of food, and is commonly found within the cells of photosynthetic organisms, like plants. A collection of membranous structures involved in transport within the cell. The main components of the endomembrane system are the ER, golgi apparatus, vesicles and cell membrane and nuclear envelope. Does not involve membranes of mitochondria or plastids. The liquid component of the cytoplasm surrounding the organelles and other insoluble cytoplasmic structures in an intact cell where a wide variety of cell processes take place. Bears many ribosomes on its outer surface, involved in protein synthesis and secretion. Synhesizes and secretes serum proteins in the liver and hormones and other substances in the glands. Does not have ribosomes, includes synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs and calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors and cell membrane proteins. Involved in intracellular transport. Membrane-bound organelle that occurs as interconnected flattened sacs of tubules that are connected to the nuclear membrane, runs through the cytoplasm, and may extend into the cell membrane. A chlorophyll-containing plastid found in the cells of plants and other photosynthetic eukaryotes. Organelle found within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, act as the site for the production of high-energy compounds (ATP) which is a vital energy source for several cellular processes. Composed of membrane-bound stacks called cisternae. Involved glycosylation, packaging of molecules like proteins into vesicle for secretion, transport of lipids around the cell, creation of lysosomes. Particle composed of protein and ribonucleic acid that serves as the site of protein synthesis. Some occur free and some are bound to the nuclear membrane and the ER. The round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell composed of protein and RNA. The core; central part around which other parts are grouped or gathered; large membrane-bound organelle that contains the genetic material. Swollen or congested; turgor pressure or turgidity is the main pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall in plant cells and bacteria cells that results from osmotic flow of water from areas of low to high concentration. Transport of substances across a membrane from higher to lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Passive movement across a gradient from regions of higher to lower concentration. Movement from an area of higher concentration to and area of lower concentration. A type of transport where ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, movement is opposite of that of diffusion. Movement from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. A gradual change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution. A gradient results from an unequal distribution of ions across the cell membrane. A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. A circular strand of DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. A complex of nucleic acids and proteins that condense to form a chromosome during cell division. Two identical strands that are joined by a common centromere as a result of a chromosome that duplicated during the S phase of the cell cycle. The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up the X-shaped chromosome; the site where the kinetochore is formed. The process by which the cell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as membrane-bounded vesicles passing through the cell membrane. The linked simultaneous transport of a substance across a membrane coupled with the simultaneous transport of another substance across the same membrane in the same direction. The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential. A ratio of inside vs outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions in diffusible tissues or cells. A channel through a membrane that can be opened or closed by chemical or electrical events. Small membrane-bound organelles that carry secretory and membrane proteins in both directions between the rough ER and the Golgi complex, and from the Golgi to the cell surface or other destination. The cell’s outer membrane that is made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. It separates the contents of the cell from its outside environment and regulates what enters and exits the cell. A protein that transports sodium and potassium ions across cell membranes against their concentration gradients. A protein that actively transports materials across a plasma membrane. A protein that temporarily adheres to the biological membrane either to the lipid bilayer or to the integral proteins. A protein molecule that is attached to the plasma membrane and interacts with the membrane phospholipids. A feature/characteristic of the plasma membrane. Developed by S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 to describe the structural features of biological membranes. Proteins with covalently attached sugar units. Includes most secreted proteins and proteins that are exposed at the outer surface of the plasma membrane. A feature and a function of the plasma membrane that is essential to maintain homeostasis by regulating the passage of some substances while preventing others from entering the cell. Cell Cycle The sequence of growth and division of a cell. Consists of interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis. Go Phase Phase of the cell cycle where the cells exist in a quiescent state. Cells have unduplicated DNA, degraded RNA and protein, and a low enzyme activity. Interphase The stage between two successive cell divisions. G2 Phase A part of the cell cycle during interphase lasting from the end of DNA synthesis until the start of cell division. S Phase A part of the cell cycle near the end of interphase during which DNA is synthesized. G1 Phase A part of the cell cycle during interphase, lasting from the end of cell division until the start of DNA synthesis. M Phase Period in the cell cycle when the cell division takes place Mitosis The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell. Cell Division The separation of one cell into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow visible. Cells separate, each with own nucleus. Telophase Chromosome separation is complete. Chromosomes move towards opposite ends of the nuclear spindle. Anaphase Separation of sister chromatids followed by their movement towards the poles of the spindle. Metaphase The condensed chromosomes have aligned along the plate while the microtubules formed during prophase then attach themselves to the kinetochores. Prometaphase Nuclear membrane dissolves, proteins attach to the centromeres creating the kinetochores, microtubules attach to kinetochores and the chromosomes begin moving. Prophase Stage in cell division when the chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes . Nuclear envelope breaks down and spindle fibers form at opposite ends of the cell. Cellular Energetics Cellular Energetics Calvin Cycle A cyclical series of biochemical reactions that occur in the stroma of chloroplasts during photosynthesis and includes the light-independent reactions such as carbon fixation and reduction reactions. Light Reactions The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that require light energy that is captured by light-absorbing pigments to be converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. Photons Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles that move at the speed of light.. they are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. A tissue found in the interior of leaves that is made up of photosynthetic cells. Mesophyll Chlorophyll The green pigment found in the chloroplasts of higher plants and in cells of photosynthetic microorganisms. Primarily involved in absorbing light energy for photosynthesis. A specific chlorophyll molecule that holds light energy. Reaction Center A yellow-green chlorophyll pigment which occurs only in plants and green algae. It functions as a light harvesting pigment that pass of the light excitation to chlorophyll A. it absorbs at wavelengths of 450-500 nm and 600-650 nm. Chlorophyll B Chlorophyll A A type of chlorophyll that is most common and predominant in all oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms such as higher plants, red and green algae. It is best at absorbing wavelengths in the 400-450 nm and 650-700 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectrum used to measure absorption where various wavelengths of light represent different colors of light. Absorption Spectrum Oxidation A chemical reaction in which there is the loss of electrons or gain of oxygen that results in an increase in the oxidation state. A substance that accepts an electron from another substance. Oxidizing Agent Reducing Agent A molecule that donates an electron in an oxidation-reduction reaction. Any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion and is always accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent. Reduction Redox Reactions A chemical reaction involving both reduction and oxidation, which results in changes in oxidation numbers of atoms included in the reaction. Involved in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Acetyl CoA The condensation product of coenzyme A and acetic acid. Intermediate in transfer of two-carbon fragment , notably in its entrance into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and in fatty acid cynthesis. This coenzyme plays a huge role in the metabolism in which cells synthesize, break down, or use nutrient molecules for energy production, growth, etc. NADP+ The oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, which is used as an electron carrier. NAD+ The oxidized form of nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide. The process where a plant consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxed during photosynthesis resulting in a decrease in photosynthetic output. Plants like C3 face this problem on hot and dry days because they close their stomata to prevent the excessive loss of water. As a result, the plant can’t take in carbon dioxide, so the leaves take in oxygen as a substitute. Photorespiration Carbon Fixation The process by which photosynthetic organisms such as plants turn inorganic carbon into organic compounds. A plant that utilizes the Crassulcean acid metabolism (CAM) as an adaptation for arid conditions. CO2 entering the stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin Cycle during the day, when the stomata are closed. CAM Plant C4 Plant A plant that utilizes the C4 carbon fixation pathway in which the CO2 is first bound to a phosphoenolpyruvate in mesophyll cell resulting in the formation of four-carbon compound that is shuttled to the bundle sheath cell where it will be decarboxylated to liberate to liberate the CO2 to be utilized in the C3 pathway. A plant that utilizes the C3 carbon fixation pathway as the sole mechanism to convert CO2 into an organic compound. Thee CO2 is first fixed into a compound containing three carbon atoms before entering the calvin cycle of photosynthesis. C3 Plant Autotrophs An organism that is capable of making nutritive organic molecules from inorganic sources via photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a protonmotive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis. Photophosphorylation Primary Electron Acceptor A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules. It accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls. Stroma The spongy, colorless matrix of a cell that functionally supports the cell. Photosystem 2 The photosystem that absorbs light for use to drive the oxidation of water and the reduction of plastoquinone and whose reaction center chlorophyll is p680. Photosystem 1 The photosystem that makes use of light to transfer electron particularly from plastocyanin to ferredoxin and whose reaction center chlorophyll is p700. Chemiosmosis The diffusion of hydrogen ions across the biological membrane via the ATP synthase due to a proton gradient that forms on the other side of the membrane. The proton gradient forms when the hydrogen ions accumulate as they are forcibly moved to the other side of the membrane by carrier proteins while the electrons pass through the electron transport chain in the membrane. Since more hydrogen ions are on the other side they tend to move back across the membrane via ATP synthase, and as they flow, energy is released that is later used to convert ADP to ATP. ATP Synthase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP from the phosphorylation of ADP with inorganic phosphate using a form of energy such as the energy from a proton gradient. Photosynthesis The synthesis of complex organic material using carbon dioxide, water, inorganic salts, and light energy captured by light-absorbing pigments such as chlorophyll and other accessory pigments. Photosynthesis consists on light reaction and dark reactions. Anaerobic Without the need of oxygen for survival. Lactic Acid Fermentation Process that breaks down glucose into lactic acid without the need of oxygen. A type of cellular respiration which does not require oxygen and involves the breaking down of glucose to pyruvic acid, then ethanol. Alcohol Fermentation Fermentation An anaerobic cellular process in which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds and chemical energy is produced. Level phosphorylation- the formation of high-energy phosphate bonds by phosphorylation of ADP to ATP coupled to cleavage of a high-energy metabolic intermediate. Substrate Aerobic Requiring oxygen for life or survival. A metabolic process that generates ATP from ADP through phosphorylation that derives the energy from the oxidation of nutrients. In eukaryotes, it is a part of cellular respiration within the mitochondria. Oxidative Phosphorylation A cycle of reactions catalyzed by enzymes in which pyruvate derived from nutrients and converted to acetylcoA is completely oxidized and broken down into carbon dioxide and water to produce high-energy phosphate compounds. Krebs Cycle Glycolycsis The initial metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which the series of reactions happening in the cytosol results in the conversion of a monosaccharide, often glucose, into pyruvic acid, and the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of high-energy molecules, ATP. Cellular Respiration A series of metabolic processes that take place within a cell in which biochemical energy is harvested from organic substance and stored as energy carriers for use in energy-requiring activities of the cell. Cellular Energetics Cellular Energetics Cellular Energetics Cellular Energetics Cellular Energetics RNA Polymerase An enzyme that is responsible for making rna from a dna template in transcription. Messenger RNA A type of RNA that carries the code for a specific protein. In the early stages of protein synthesis, the mRNA is synthesized from a DNA template during transcription. Ribosomal RNA A nucleic acid that is found in all living cells. It plays a role in transferring info from DNA to the protein-forming system of the cell. Assists in translation. Transfer RNA Attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell. Primase The enzyme that synthesizes the rna for rna dna sequences that will later become okazaki fragments and also ra primers for some types of phage using a DNA template. Codon A set of three adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that base-pair with the corresponding anticodon of tRNA molecule that carries a particular amino acid and therefore specifying the type and sequence of amino acids for protein synthesis. Anticodon A sequence of tree adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA. It binds to the complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation in protein synthesis. Intron Non-coding, intervening sequences of DNA that are transcribed but are removed from wihin the primary gene transcript and rapidly degraded during maturation of messenger RNA. Exon The protein-coding region in the DNA; the nucleic acid sequence in the DNA or RNA transcript following genetic splicing. Operon A group of genes or a segment of DNA that functions as a single transcription unit. It is comprised of an operator, a promoter, and one or more structural genes that are transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA. P Site One of a ribosome’s three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The P site holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain. A Site The ribosomal binding site for the aminoacyl tRNA during protein synthesis. E Site One of the ribosome’s three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The sit is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome. DNA Ligase An enzyme involved in dna replication. It can seal nicks/breaks in the phosphodiester linkage in one strand of double stranded dna. This is a reaction required for linking precursor fragments during the discontinuous synthesis on the aging strand. Leading Strand The strand that is synthesized continuously during replication. Splicosome A complex of small nuclear organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions tha remove introns from precursor messenger rna molecules occur. Lagging Strand The dna strand that is replicated discontinuously from the 5’ to the 3’ direction. Biotechnology The use of microorganisms or biological substances to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes. Application of this branch is the production o certain drugs, synthetic hormones, and bulk foodstuffs as well as the bioconversion of organic waste and the incredible use of genetically altered bacteria in the cleanup of oil spills. Polymer Chain Reaction A technique that is used for amplifying dna sequences in vitro by separating the dna into two strands and then incubating it with oligonucleotide primers and dna polymerase. It is important in biotechnology. Primer Short pre-existing polynucleotide chain that new deoxyribonucleotides can be added to by dna polymerase. DNA Polymerase The enzyme responsible for DNA replication Replication Fork A y-shaped region in a chromosome that serves as the growing site for dna replicaton. Helicase A prokaryote enzyme that uses the hydrolysis of atp to unwind the dna helix at the replication fork to further allow the single strands to be copied. Reverse Transcriptase This makes use of rna molecules to use for a template in the synthesis of a complementary dna strand. It can be produced by HIV and other retroviruses in order to synthesize dna from their viral rna. Genetic Engineering The technology of all processes of altering the genetic material of a cell to make it capable of performing the desired functions. Transcription The process of copying genetic info that is stored in a dna strand into a complementary strand of rna with the aid of rna polymerase. Translation A step in protein synthesis when the genetic code that is carried by mrna is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids. RNA Processing A series of enzymatic reactions that work to convert the primary transcript to a moer mature and functional molecule. This processing includes: base modification, sugar modification, pyrimidine ring rearrangements, formation of helices and tertiary conformations, additions to the 5’ and 3’ termini, and various others as well. Mutation A permanent and heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gen or chromosome. Point Mutation A mutation in dna or rna involving a change of only one nucleotide base. Base-Pair Subsstitution A type of mutation involving the substitution of a single nucleotide base with another in dna or rna molecule. Missense Mutation A form of point mutation that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. Nonsense Mutation A form o point mutation resulting in a nonsense codon that does not code for any amino acid. This causes the dna sequence to be nonfunctional. Capsid The protein coat that surrounds the nucleic acid of a virus. Viral Envelope The outer structure of a virus that encloses the nucleocapsid. Bacteriophage A virus that is capable of infecting a bacterial cell. Host Range The range of host species which a particular virus, bacteria or parasite can infect. Lytic Cycle One of the cycles of viral reproduction which ends in the lysis of the infected cell and releases the progeny viruses that will spread t other cells. Lysogenic Cycle One of the cycles of viral reproduction. A bacteriophage’s nucleic acid fuses together with the host’s nucleic acid, causing the genetic info of the virus to be spread to daughter cells. Temperate Virus A virus does not cause lysis by infection of a host, but the genome may replicate in synchrony with that of a host. Prophage The genome of a lysogenic bacteriophage when it is integrated into the chromosome of the host bacterium. Provirus The genome of a virus when it is integrated into the host cell’s dna. The genes of the provirus may be transcribed and expressed or the provirus may be maintained in a latent condition. Retrovirus A virus that is characterized by having a single-stranded rna as its genetic material, and it uses this to incorporate into the genome of the host cell. Operator A segment of dna where the repressor binds to to prevent the transcription of certain genes. Repressor A regulatory protein that binds to an operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon. Corepressor Molecule that can bind to a repressor molecule to work to stop transcription of a gene. Inducer An agent that can activate a specific gene. It can inhibit the action of the repressor o an operon and prevent it from binding with the operator gene and then disabling its function. Regulatory Gene Gene that produces a substance that controls or regulates the expression of one or more genes, like the gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator. Gel Electrophoresis A research technique that is used to separate molecules according to their size. DNA Fingerprinting The fingerprints are a bar-code occurrence that can distinguish the uniqueness of one individual from another. Recombinant DNA Spliced dna that is formed from two or more different sources that have been cleaved by restriction enzymes and are then joined by ligases. Restriction Fragment The fragments of dna that are generated by digesting dna with a specific restriction endonuclease and each fragments end in a site that is recognized by the specific enzyme. Restriction Enzyme An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of dna at restriction sites and producing small fragments used for gene splicing in recombinant dna technology and for chromosome mapping. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism The variation in the length of dna fragments that are produced by a restriction endonuclease that can cut a polymorphic locus. These variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes. Restriction Site The site in a polynucleotide chain where the restriction enzyme cleaves nucleotides by hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bond between them. Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Molecular Genetics Evolutionary Biology Evolution The change in genetic composition of a population over many generations that may cause natural selection, inbreeding, hybridization, or mutation. Convergent Evolution A kind of evolution wherein organisms evolve structures that have similar structures or functions even though their ancestors were very dissimilar or unrelated. Branching Evolution Different species become reproductively isolated from each other by adapting ecological niches and eventually become separate species. Microevolution Evolution that involves small-scale changes that occur over a short time and result in new subspecies. Macroevolution Evolution that happens of a large scare over a very long amount of time and forms new taxonomic groups. Phyletic Evolution Evolution that occurs by sequential changes in a line of descent that causes one species to be transformed into a new one. Pueden encontrarse unidos covalentemente con otras biomoléculas como en el caso de los glicolípidos (presentes en las membranas biológicas) Pueden unirse a lípidos o a proteínas de la superficie de la célula, y representan una señal de reconocimiento en superficie. GLUCOSA GALACTOSA FRUCTOSA Polisacárido Constituyente del Almidón y el Glucógeno. Conformado por unidades de glucosa. Son moléculas orgánicas formadas por carbono, hidrógeno y oxígeno (CHO), aunque distribuidas de diferente forma.
Son insolubles en agua, solubles en alcohol y cloroformo y untuosos al tacto.
Se dividen en grasas (sólidas a temperatura ambiente) y en aceites (líquidos a temperatura ambiente).
Tanto las grasas como los aceites son triglicéridos, formados por tres moléculas de ácidos grasos y una molécula de glicerol.
Las grasas de los animales se caracterizan por tener ácidos grasos saturados que permanecen empaquetados apretadamente y sólidas a temperatura ambiente.
Los lípidos cumplen varias funciones dentro del organismo... Forman parte de las membranas celulares Semillas de los vegetales poseen lípidos y cuando germinan, las nuevas plantas pueden crecer lo suficiente hasta autoabastecerse. Son excelentes aislantes térmicos, ya que la capa subcutánea de los animales ayuda a mantener la temperatura del cuerpo. Además, las grasas protegen contra los golpes. Secreción de aceites de animales sobre la superficie de la piel, las plumas y los pelos. una capa de cera cubre las hojas de los vegetales evitando que el agua se evapore. Las ceras son similares a las grasas y aceites, salvo que los ácidos grasos se unen a largas cadenas de alcoholes en lugar de unirse al glicerol. Las abejas elaboran ceras especiales para la construcción de las colmenas. Las sales biliares ayudan a transportar las grasas desde el intestino a la sangre. UN GRUPO FOSFATO + UNA BASE NITROGENADA + UN AZUCAR DE 5 CARBONOS En las células eucariotas de animales y plantas superiores, el ARN se encuentra mayormente en el citoplasma y algo en el núcleo. La macromolécula de ARN forma una cadena simple. En cambio, el ADN está únicamente dentro del núcleo de la célula y posee dos cadenas, paralelas y enrolladas en espiral. Estructural
Enzimática La queratina está presente en los pelos, lana, plumas, piel, uñas y cuernos. La insulina es una proteína que controla la glucosa presente en la sangre. Las globulinas dan lugar a la formación de anticuerpos llamados inmunoglobulinas. La hemoglobina es una proteína que transporta oxígeno y dióxido de carbono en la sangre. Las enzimas son proteínas cuya función es acelerar una reacción química.