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Evolution

Variation, Adaptation, Speciation, Mutation, Natural Selection, Isolation
by

Teika Clavell

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Evolution

EVOLUTION
What is evolution? Has it effected our surroundings? Has it effected you or me? Has it changed us in any way?
Technological evolution is no different than the evolution of living organisms. What kind of technological evolutions have you witnessed?
Variation
Variations are differences that exist naturally among members of a population or species.
Dolichoderus mariae- Ant species commonly found in NC
The Queen
The Worker
Same species!!
What variations do you see
Adaptations
An adaptation is a trait that helps an organism survive in a particular environment
The Deep Sea Cucumber
There are a lot of examples of adaptations in nature. In your notes, give one example of an adaptation in three different species. This will be your exit ticket, so if you cannot think of all now, make sure to come back to it!!!
What is that?
5 Million years in the future: Rattleback
Lives in the Amazon Grassland/ North American Desert
Plates on its back are hard, repel flames, and isolate from the cold.
Feeds on insects and small mammals that burrow in the ground.
Speciation
Speciation is evolution of a new species from an existing species.
Consider the following:
Disaster Strikes
The Scene
The Populations Diverge
A population of wild fruit flies minding its own business on several bunches of rotting bananas, cheerfully laying their eggs in the mushy fruit...
A hurricane washes the bananas and the immature fruit flies they contain out to sea. The banana bunch eventually washes up on an island off the coast of the mainland. The fruit flies mature and emerge from their slimy nursery onto the lonely island. The two portions of the population, mainland and island, are now far too different to unite them. At this point, speciation has not occurred—any fruit flies that got back to the mainland could mate and produce healthy offspring with the mainland flies.
Ecological conditions are slightly different on the island, and the island population evolves under different selective pressures and experiences different random events than the mainland population does. The two different species become more alike and are eventually able to mate creating an entirely new species.
Mutation
Mutation is a change in the genetic material of an organism
Mutations can be passed from one generation to the next
Mutations may result in an adaptation that improves an organism's ability to exit in an environment
Sickle Cell is a genetic mutation of the red blood cells. This occurred as a way to combat Malaria
Natural Selection
Natural Selection is a process by which organisms that are best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce
Over Production
Variation
Adaptation
Natural Selection Processes
Selection
If an animal produces enough offspring, some will survive.
Natural differences that help different living things to survive. A range of characteristics for the same trait.
An inherited trait that gives an organism an advantage
Those animals born with a selective advantage will survive longer
Isolation
Isolation in reference to evolution is when a population of species or group of organisms is separated from another group physically.
Think back to the fruit fly example. The fruit flies isolated to the island due to the hurricane will, after a long period of time, evolve differently than the mainland fruit flies.
Charles Darwin's Galapagos Tortoise
Darwin discovered that there were two distinctive characteristics of the of Galapagos Tortoise that varied by island; isolation. On one island, the toutoises had longer necks which he hypothesized was due to their higher food source. One another island, the tortoises neck were shorter as was their food source. Because they evolved separate from one another, they turned out differently.
Trait
specific characteristics of an individual. What traits do you have.
Survival of the Fittest
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