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THE UNIQUE ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN CONCEPTS OF SOVIET “SOCIALIST CITIES” OF THE 1920S –1940S: THE CASE OF THE URALMASH SOTSGOROD

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Julia Korensky

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Transcript of THE UNIQUE ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN CONCEPTS OF SOVIET “SOCIALIST CITIES” OF THE 1920S –1940S: THE CASE OF THE URALMASH SOTSGOROD

THE UNIQUE ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN CONCEPTS OF SOVIET “SOCIALIST CITIES”
OF THE 1920S –1940S: THE CASE OF THE URALMASH SOTSGOROD

Julia Korensky
Matriculation No.3052913

Supervisors:
Prof. Dr. h.c.,
Wolfgang Schuster
Prof., PhD.,
Natalia Chernyaeva

Problem Statement
Aim
Objectives
determine the unique features of architectural and urban concepts of Soviet “socialist cities” of the 1920s –1940s.
1. Provide an overview of the
factors
, which have
lead to the creation of socialist cities
in Russia in the first half of the twentieth century.
2. Disclose the subject matter of the
Sotsgorod idea
and its embodiment in construction plans of Uralmash
3. Conduct
comparative analysis
with the European ideas of “cities of the future.”
4. Evaluate
Bauhaus architect’s contribution
to the design and construction processes of Soviet Sotsgorods.
5.Define the
uniqueness of Uralmash Sotsgorod
planning approaches; identify its characteristics and features.
6. Develop
recommendations
for the conservation of architectural and urban heritage of Sotsgorod Uralmash.
Rapid new construction in recent years has undeniably altered the reality and perception of the Sotsgorod’s architectural character.

Complete opposite with the garden cities in England and working settlements in Germany – here they remain protected by law.



Need to evaluate the design principles of the Soviet Sotsgorods, identify its differences with western ideas of “cities of the future” and develop recommendations for the conservation of architectural and urban heritage of the Sotsgorod Uralmash.
Chapter 1.
Ideas for new urban developments in the Soviet architecture during the pre- and post-Revolutionary period, their social and architectural origins

Chapter 2.
The concept of Sotsgorod (socialist city) in theory and practice of urban planning of the twentieth century

Chapter 3.
Soviet Sotsgorod and European “cities of the future”: a comparative analysis

From the garden-city idea towards socialist settlement
Industrialization in the USSR and its influence on Soviet urban planning development
The origins for the formation of new Sotsgorods in Russia in the 1920’s – 1930’s
The notion of Soviet Sotsgorod: social objectives, planning practices, architectural layouts
Sotsgorod ideas embodiment: the example of Uralmash socialist city
The impact of the Bauhaus architectural principles on the “socialist cities”
Summary and Conclusions
Self-governmental settlements
(ex. dacha areas) since 1880-s
photo by V.Ttitov, 2009
Worker's settlements
(ex. Railway settlements) since 1890-s
Source: Sergei Shilo,2011
Garden-cities since 1904
Novorossiisk
Mežaparks in Riga (also known as Kaiserwald in German),1908
Workers' garden-settlements in
post-revolutionary Russia, 1918-1922
´Source: http://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Me%C5%BEaparks
October's garden-village, 1922
Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vologda_-_Oktyabrsky_-_1928.jpg?uselang=ru
Cooperative housing settlements,
middle 1920-s
Sokol Settlement, 1923
Source: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Сокол_(посёлок_в_Москве)
Dis-urbanization concept
Urbanist concept
The end of 1920-s
Socialist City Concept (1929-1930)

Soviet Poster: Smoke of chimneys is the breath of Soviet Russia
1. Theory of new society
2. Marxsist-Leninist ideas propaganda
3. The shift from private towards collectivized property
4. The new economic development and industrialization
5. Peasants migration
6. Social reformation strategies
7. The influence of garden-city concept
8. The organization of urban planning competitions

Soviet Sotsgorod
The main principles of the socialist cities
The calculation of needed number of Sotsgorod’s residents
Socialist city population recruitment
Determining the types of mass housing in socialist city
Development of the planning structure and functional zoning of the socialist cities
Location of the socialist city
Institutions of communal services
Decentralization of urban industrial and administrative centers
History of Uralmash

1926
Decision to establish Ural Heavy Machinery Plant
15th July
1928
Start of construction
15th July
1933
Plant’s and Sotsgorod unveiling
Urban planning project for 100,000 inhabitants was developed by
Peter Oranskyi
15th July
1930
the construction of a 6-kilometer highway, connecting the Uralmash with the city, was completed
First Five-Year Square
is a center of the Uralmash settlement
European expertise in building and design of “cities of the future” and working settlements
May's Brigade
Meyer's Brigade
SWOT Analysis of the Uralmash Sotsgorod site
The unique features of the Uralmash Sotsgorod and recommendations for its preservation
Promotion strategies for raising public awareness
Ansoff product market grid
Red-baiting political cartoon depicting Bauhaus Dessau director Hannes Meyer being shipped off to the Soviet Union (1930)
Hannes Meyer’s plan for the Sotsgorod Nizhne-Kurinsk 1932
Working in a meeting room of a local soviet; front left Walter Schwagenscheidt, behind from left Carl Lehmann, Wilhelm Hauss, Ms. Struve, and Ernst May, circa 1931
Ernst May’s plan for the Sotsgorod Magnitogorsk 1930
Positive examples
Historical route "5 axis of Uralmash"
Pupils team "Quartet" with supervisor E.Guzanina, librarian from Gorkyi Municipal Library

Podelniki (accomplices)
Realnie istorii (Real stories) social project, M.Saharova
Monitoring of monument buildings
source:
http://www.sovietposters.com/showposter.php?poster=116
centralisation
decentralisation
distribution
Network types by Paul Baran, developer of the distributed communication network system, early 1960's
40-100.000 inhabitants
(only workers)

source: http://map-ukraine.at.ua/_ph/6/212432041.jpg
Plant in Achevsk, Ukrain
Ural Heavy Mashinery Plant
Kitchen-Fabric. Photographer Arkady Shaikhet. Moscow, RSFSR, USSR. 1930.
source: htt://phistory.info/photo-history/243-fabrika-kuhnya-fotograf-arkadiy-shayhet-moskva-rsfsr-sssr-1930-god.html
source: http://www.archnadzor.ru/2008/03/29/simvol-e-pohi/
Kitchen-Fabric in Samara
Source: lib.rus.ec
N.Krupskaya with preschool kids
GROWTH RATES:
Industrial production
180%
Agriculture
55%
National income
103%
Labor productivity
110%
Real wages
71%
Income of the farmers
67%
FIRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN
aimed at
1,500 Industrial enterprises
in Siberia, Far East and Urals

87
New cities

Accomodate
6-7 million people

Cottbus 18 December 2013
1.
The concept of Sotsgorod emerged at the
junction of urbanist and disurbanist ideas.
It became the result of a
systematic search
for new approaches on urban development.

2.
The central principles of Sotsgorods:
communal housing principles, collectivization of the goods, socialization of every-day life, connection with the production
and
the introduction of new public arrangements.

3. None
of the constructed Socialist cities
manifested all of the principles.

4. Soviet Sotsgorod has much in common with the European "Cities of the Future"
: decentralization of the housing agglomerations, the erection of settlements in relation to the industrial production and a strong will to create new equitable social order by architectural means

Uniqueness of Uralmash
embodiment of almost all of the principles of ideal socialist city
testimony to a rapid development of mass housing
example of a paradigm shift from traditional housing construction towards broad mass residential reform
illustrates a significant stage in Soviet history
presence of a number of architectural landmarks
Dacha in Troitse-Lykovo
Source: http://www.alyoshin.ru/Files/publika/khan_archi/khan_archi_2_040.html
Source: http://www.alyoshin.ru/Files/publika/khan_archi/khan_archi_2_040.html
of the working population
of the county’s territory accommodated
of the industrial production

3%
30%

40%

Soviet Poster “The Victory of the Revolution is in Co-operation of Workers & Peasants”
Communal house project (Narkomfin building), M.Ginzburg, 1930
Central Plant Clockhouse, 1930. Architect: E.Balakshina
Factory administration building (1933-1935) Architect: P. Oranskyi, B. Scheffler
Hotel Madrid,1937. Architect: P.Oranskyi, B.Scheffler
Kitchen-Fabric, 1933. Architect: V.Paramonov, B.Scheffler
School building №22, 1937. Architect: P. Oranskyi, B.Scheffler
”Saw”-House, 1934, Architect: P.Oranskyi
White Water Tower , 1929. Architect: M.Reischer
Bela Scheffler
Hannes Meyer
5.

Uralmash
Machinery Plant Sotsgorod -
unique example of Sotsgorod
, which absorbed most of the characteristics of the ideal socialist city.

6.Uralmash
also demonstrates the significant
development of mass housing
and obtains a number of c
onstructivist landmarks
, inherent to that period.

7.
Negligence by the government and by most of the local people to the buildings of the Uralmash settlement have led to the
gradual destruction of the heritage
.

8.
Recommendations for conservation of Uralmash were offered as a
potential marketing strategy
for promoting of the site, raising public awareness and attracting reconstruction funding.
Summary and Conclusions
Full transcript