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Merrill's First Principles of Instruction

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Clara Rosales

on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of Merrill's First Principles of Instruction

5 main principles of Merrill
5 main principles of Merrill
2. Activation – Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge.

Prior experience from relevant past experience of students is used as a foundation for new skills and knowledge (scaffolding).

Merrill's First Principles of Instruction
3. Demonstration – Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to learner.

Students are shown, rather than just being told.

Ex. Teacher shows or provides examples of what it is to be learned rather than merely telling information about what is to be learned.
4 5 6
First Principles of Instruction
He believed that the most effective learning processes or environments are problem centered and involve learner in 5 distinct phases.
Is an attempt to develop a theory and instructional design model that promote e³ instructions.


For the past several years the author has been reviewing instructional design theories in an attempt to identify prescriptive principles that are common to the various theories.

1. Problem/Task – Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems.

Students start with simple problems and work through a progression of increasingly complex problems which involve authentic real-world problems or task (not just problem solving questions).

M. David Merill

Professor of Instructional Technology at the Utah State University
Instructional effectiveness consultant
He currently teaches online courses at Brigham Young University Hawaii and University of Hawaii.

M. David Merrill (2002) identified 5 Instructional Design principles that promote learning when creating learning or training environments, processes and products.

5 main principles of Merrill
Teacher helps students use what they already know about a topic by providing cues and questions.
5 main principles of Merrill
4. Application – Learning is promoted when new knowledge or skill consistent with the type of content being taught is applied by the learner.

Students are required to use their new knowledge or skill to solve problems.

Ex. Teacher asks students to apply taught concepts to new examples followed by corrective feedback if needed.
5 main principles of Merrill
5. Integration – Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated to the learner’s world.

Students are able to demonstrate improvement in their newly acquired skills and can modify it for use in their daily work.
Merill, M. D. (2002). First Principles of instruction. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 50 (3), pp43-59.
Merrill, M. D. (2007). First principles of instruction: a synthesis. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, 2nd Edition. R. A. Reiser and J. V. Dempsey. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Merrill/Prentice Hall. 2: 62-71.

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