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Blood Types

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by

Nelly Guerrero

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Blood Types

Rh Classification
The Rh Factor is an antigen located on the surface of the RBC
If the RBC has the Rh factor, the blood is considered Rh-positive(+)
If the RBC lacks the Rh factor, it is said to be Rh-negative(-)
85% of the population is Rh-positive(+)
Anti-Rh antibodies ARE NOT naturally carried in the plasma.
However in two conditions the plasma of a Rh-negative(-) person can develop anti-Rh antibodies.
What would happen if a person had the B antigen on the RBC and the anti-B antibodies in the plasma?
First Condition
Accidental administration of Rh-positive(+) blood (donor) to an Rh-negative(-) person(recipient).
The Rh antigen of the donor stimulates the recipient to produce anti-Rh antibodies
Person is said to be sensitized.
What happens if the Rh-negative(-) recipient is given Rh-positive(+) blood a second time around?
Blood Types & Rh Classification System
Antigens& Blood Types
ABO grouping contains four blood types: A, B, AB, and O.
A and B refer to the antigen on the RBC.
Person with type A blood, has the A antigen on the RBC.
Person with type B blood, has the B antigen on the RBC.
Person with type AB blood, has both A & B antigens on the RBC.
Person with type O blood, has neither A or B antigen on the RBC.
Specific antibodies are found in the plasma of each blood type:
Type A blood has anti-B antibodies in the plasma
Type B blood has anti-A antibodies in the plasma
Type AB blood has neither antibodies
Type O blood has both antibodies in the plasma
To avoid giving incompatible blood, the donor is TYPED & CROSS-MATCHED!
The anti-Rh antibodies in the plasma will attack the Rh antigen of the Rh-positive(+) blood
Clotting & hemolysis
Second Condition
The hemolysis causes a rapid rise in plasma levels of bilirubin
Causing severe jaundice and a condition called Kernicterus
Baby is also anemic
Blood is classified according to the specific antigens on the surface of the RBC.
By: Nelly Guerrero
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