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Unit 8: Stress and Health

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james etheridge

on 1 February 2018

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Transcript of Unit 8: Stress and Health

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Figure 13.12 The prevalence of smoking in the United States
Smoking
Poor nutrition
Lack of exercise
Alcohol and drug use
Risky sexual behavior
Transmission, misconceptions, and prevention of AIDS
Health-Impairing
Behaviors
Figure 13.11 The stress-illness correlation
Heart disease
Type A behavior - 3 elements
strong competitiveness
impatience and time urgency
anger and hostility

Somatic symptom disorder
Emotional reactions and depression
Stress and immune functioning
Reduced immune activity
Effects of Stress: Physical
Figure 13.7 The antecedents, components, and consequences of burnout
Impaired task performance
~ “choking” under pressure.
Burnout
~ physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion
Psychological problems and disorders

Positive effects ~
Recent research suggests that stress can promote
personal growth or self-improvement
, forcing people to develop new skills, reevaluate priorities, learn new insights, and acquire new strengths.
Conquering a stressful challenge may also lead to
improved coping abilities and increases in self-esteem.
Effects of Stress:
Behavioral and Psychological
Behavioral Responses
constructive coping
learned helplessness
Dollard’s frustration-aggression hypothesis.....
defense mechanism
Responding to Stress
Behaviorally
Physiological Responses
Fight-or-flight response Walter Cannon
(1932)
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy.
Responding to Stress
Physiologically
The inverted-U-hypothesis
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Change
: having to adapt
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Life Change Units
Pressure

Perform/conform - involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way…pressure to perform or to comply.
Major Types of Stress
Frustration:
blocked goal traffic
Conflict:
incompatible motivations

Approach-approach
- when a person has a choice between 2 attractive goals
Avoidance-avoidance
- when a person has a choice between 2 unattractive choices.
Approach-avoidance

– when a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive
Major Types of Stress
Major Stressors vs. Routine Hassles

Cumulative nature of stress

- minor stresses like moving, experiencing changes in household responsibilities, etc. can add up to be as stressful as a major traumatic event like a divorce or disaster.
Cognitive appraisals
- People’s appraisals of events are very subjective and influence the effect of the event.
Stress: An Everyday Event
Figure 13.1 Changing patterns of illness
Contagious diseases vs. chronic diseases
Biopsychosocial
model
Health psychology - which holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Health promotion and maintenance
Discovery of causation, prevention, and treatment
The Relationship
Between Stress and Disease
Unit 8:
Stress, Coping, and Health

Biopsychosocial factors in health
Seeking treatment
Ignoring physical symptoms
Communication with health care providers
Barriers to effective communication
Following medical advice
Noncompliance
Reactions to Illness
Figure 13.13 Quitting smoking and cancer risk
Social support

Increased immune functioning
Optimism

More adaptive coping
Pessimistic explanatory style
Conscientiousness
Fostering better health habits
Autonomic reactivity
Cardiovascular reactivity to stress
Factors Moderating the
Impact of Stress
Emotional Responses
Annoyance, anger, rage, apprehension, anxiety, fear, dejection, sadness, grief
Positive emotions ~ having adaptive significance
Responding to Stress
Emotionally
Figure 13.4 Overview of the stress process
Figure 13.2 Types of conflict
Emotional response and performance
The inverted-U-hypothesis
High emotion can sometimes negatively influence task performance, more so for highly complex tasks and less so for simple ones
Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome 1930’s
GAS
Alarm
~ an organism recognizes a threat and mobilizes resources
Resistance
~ when the stress is prolonged
Exhaustion
~ occurs when the body’s resources are deplete.
Coping
~ refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress.
.... attempts to explain why people
scapegoat
.
It attempts to give an explanation as to the cause of violence.
The theory, developed by
John Dollard
and colleagues, says that frustration causes aggression, but when the source of the frustration cannot be challenged,
the aggression gets displaced onto an innocent target.
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