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petroleum and petrochemical technologies

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on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of petroleum and petrochemical technologies

Petroleum And Petrochemical Technologies
A Quote from Greatest Achievements
"If coal was king in the 19th century, oil was the undisputed emperor of the 20th. Refined forms of petroleum, or "rock oil," became—in quite literal terms—the fuel on which the 20th century ran, the lifeblood of its automobiles, aircraft, farm equipment, and industrial machines."
Evolutionary History
Series of Innovations
Then came the
automobile
and
the realization
that the
internal combustion engine ran best on gasoline
, a byproduct of the process of extracting kerosene from crude oil.
Petroleum-based fuels transformed the world landscape as they increased:
agricultural productivity
provided the means for distributing industrial and farm products
furnished the personal mobility that defines 20th century technology.
Continued history
As the
demand grew for gasoline
to power not only cars
but also internal combustion engines of all kinds
, chemical engineers honing their refining techniques discovered a host of useful byproducts of crude—and the petrochemical industry was born.
Oil

had truly become
black gold
.
pharmaceuticals
medical devices
synthetic fabrics
fertilizers
pesticides
building materials
cosmetics
Edwin Drake , a retired railroad conductor struck oil in 1859 in Titus ville, Pennsylvania . The next 40 years (up to 1899) the primary interest in oil was as a source of
kerosene
. At the beginning of the 20th century, refined oil was used primarily for lighting. This use was soon eclipsed by the needs of automobile and aircraft, making oil a more significant fuel than coal by 1920.
The
kerosene lamp
is a type of
lighting device
that uses
kerosene as a fuel
. Kerosene lamps have a wick as light source, protected by a glass chimney or globe; lamps may be used on a table, or hand-held lanterns may used for portable lighting. There are three types of kerosene lamp: flat wick, central draught (tubular round wick), and mantle lamp.
The Original Invention
Innovations Continued
Sources
http://www.nationalacademies.org/greatachievements/index.html
Full transcript