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Cordillera and Appalachian Regions in Canada

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Kelsey Hagan

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Cordillera and Appalachian Regions in Canada

(physical features)
What does it look like?
Appalachian Region
What does it look like?
Cordillera Region
Cordillera and Appalachian Regions in Canada
Which is which?
(physical features)
How does it feel?
(climate)
What grows there?
(vegetation)
What lives there?
(animal life)
What industries are there?
(natural resources)
What does it feel like?
(climate)
What grows there?
(vegetation)
What lives there?
(animal life)
What industries are there?
(natural resources)
Venn Diagram
Cordillera & Appalachian Regions
Cordillera
Appalachian
Millions of years ago, huge folds of rock pushed up to form mountain ranges called the Cordillera. The folds bent and crushed against each other.

The Cordillera region today has many different landforms. There are mountains, hills, plateaus, and valleys. Most o the region is high above sea level. There are lakes of all sizes and major river systems.The Pacific Ocean lies along the Western coast.

The interior plateau lies between the Columbia Mountains and the Coast Mountains. Several large rivers flow across this high country. Then they flow through the Coast Mountains to the ocean.
The climate of a place is the pattern of its weather over a long period. It includes both temperature and precipitation. Precipitation is moisture that falls as rain or snow.

The Cordillera region has many different climates. The northern Cordillera region has cold winters and warm summers. It gets about 200-400mm of precipitation a year.

The southern part of the region has warmer temperatures. The area along the coast has mild and rainy weather, and gets about 2000mm a year. The ocean helps to keep places near the coast cooler in summer and warmer in summer
The cool, rainy climate along the Pacific Coast is perfect for the giant trees that grow there. Most forests of the Cordillera Region are coniferous. Coniferous trees have needles and cones, and are evergreen.

Most plants, shrubs, and trees grow larger on the coast than they do elsewhere. Flowering plants produce large, healthy blooms.

Mountain valleys of the Cordillera and some parts of the interior plateau are covered in forests. The tops of the high mountains have little vegetation. There is little soil and fewer warm days than in the valleys.

The natural vegetation of the interior plateau is grassland.

Many kinds of animals live in the land, air, and water of the Cordillera region. Large parts of the region have few people in there. There is lots of food for animal life.

The land areas are home for black bears, grizzly bears, deer, elk, lynx, cougars, and wolves. Many small animals, such as squirrels and rabbits, also live in the region. Canada geese, eagles, ravens, and owls are a few of the birds that live in the region.

Polar bears and caribou are found in the northern part of the Cordillera region. Along the coast, you will find marine animals such as whales and seals!
The thickest forests and largest trees in Canada grow in the Cordillera region. Forest resources provide the most important products in this region.

Softwood is timber that comes from coniferous trees. It is used to make pulp and paper. It is also used in construction. Approximately 90% of the timber produced in Canada is softwood.

Trees are made into many products, such as paper, plywood, cellophane, cardboard cartons, and furniture.
There are two giant hydroelectric dams on rivers in the Cordillera region. They are the Revelstoke Dam on the Columbia River and the W.A.C. Bennet Dam on the Peace River. The energy of falling water is used to create electricity.

This region has many minerals. At one time, people came from all over to search for gold in the Fraser River valley and in the Klondike River area. Gold, coal, copper, asbestos, zinc, silver, lead, sand, and gravel are mined in the region.

The Pacific Ocean and the rivers and lakes are the source of many kinds of fish, such as salmon, halibut, herring, and shellfish.

The Okanagan Valley in the southern part of this region has good soil and warm climate, which is perfect for orchards of apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and grapes.
The Appalachian region is part of a low range of mountains. These mountains were created long before the mountains of the Cordillera. They have been worn down by erosion over millions of years.

The region faces the Atlantic ocean. It has thousands of kilometers of sea coast. The bigger islands within this region are Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and Cape Breton. Waves, ocean currents, and tides erode the cliffs and form beaches in the region.
An ocean current is a stream of moving water within a larger body of water. It spans many kilometers along a coast or out to sea.

Off the shores of the Appalachian region, the ocean floor slants downwards gradually. Then it drops off into a deep trench. The slanting ocean floor is called the continental shelf. Southeast of Newfoundland lie several shallower parts of the continental shelf. They are called the Grand Banks, and they are famous for fishing.

The plains and valley areas of the region have fertile soil in some places, but are rocky or boggy in others.


Tides are changes in the level of the water caused by the pull of the moon’s gravity.

The water rises for about six hours, as it flows towards the shore. Then the water begins to flow back out to sea again. This also lasts about six hours. The difference between the water level at high tide and at low tide is called tidal range.

Tides move the waters of the earth. They bring fresh food and oxygen to plants and animals living near the shore, and take away waste products. The tides in the Annapolis, Nova Scotia, area power a generating station that creates electricity for the area.

Tides
The climate in the Appalachian region varies. The summers may be cool or warm and rainy. The long winters have much precipitation. Precipitation ranges from about 110-1400mm per year.

The Northumberland Straight between PEI and the mainland freezes in the winter. Fierce storms called gales are common in the winter. Winter wind speeds may reach 100km per hour on the islands and shoreline.

Much of the mainland Appalachian region is forested. Coniferous trees grow in the higher areas, both inland and on the coast. Forests of black and white spruce and balsam fir are found there. Hardwood forests of white and yellow birch, beech, and sugar maple once grew in the higher area. They have been almost completely logged.
Trees grow slowly in the Appalachian region. The climate is often harsh. The soil is rocky or not fertile in many places.

In the past, this area has been one of the richest ocean fishing grounds in the world. Cod fish used to be very plentiful. Today smaller numbers of fish are found in this area.

Grey seals and harbour seals are found on the northern coasts of the Atlantic Ocean.

The mainland Appalachian region is home to many different species of animals. Mammals include white-tailed deer, fox, snowshoe hare, coyote, mink, otter, muskrat, porcupine, beaver, and raccoon.
The island of Newfoundland once had fewer types of land animals than other parts of the region, but many have been introduced there now. Some include the moose, caribou, snowshoe hare, and squirrel.
Great blue herons and many species of ducks, shorebirds, and waterfowl can be
found
along the beaches and in the marshes and lagoons.

In the past, the Appalachian region has been known for its coal mines and its fishing. Many of the coal mines of the region are now closed, as the costs to operate them became greater. The siching industry has also become weaker as ocean fish become fewer.

Some zinc and lead, potash, salt, asbestos, copper, and gold are mined in the region. There are also two offshore oil fields. One is on the continental shelf near Nova Scotia. The other is on the Grand Banks near Newfoundland.

Cod, salmon, Pollock, halibut, redfish, herring, swordfish, sole, flounder, haddock, clams, oysters, scallops, and lobster are all harvested in the Atlantic region.

The government makes laws to prevent other countries from fishing closer than 200 nautical miles from Canada’s shore. A nautical mile is about 1850 meters. It does this to prevent the valuable resource.

There are two types of commercial fishing. One is
inshore
fishing. This is done with small boats, mainly used by families, to harvest cod and lobster for local restaurants. These operate from May to September.

Large fishing boats, or trawlers, go out into the ocean in fleets to catch the fish. This is
offshore
fishing. They drag steel mesh nets along the ocean floor to scoop up fish. These boats can clean and process fish at sea, and can operate year round.

Fishing
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