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Jamestown to Constitution Timeline
Transcript of Jamestown to Constitution Timeline
-Articles of Confederation-
In this "first constitution of the United States" each state had one vote in Congress. Instead of forming a strong national government, the states entered into "...a firm league of friendship with each other...".
Ratification by all 13 states was necessary to set the Confederation into motion.
-End of Revolutionary War-
The war for American independence began with military conflict in 1775 and lasted at least until 1783 when the peace treaty with the British was signed. In fact, Native Americans in the west (who were allied with the British, but not included in the 1783 negotiations) continued to fight and didn't sign a treaty with the United States until 1795. The Revolution was a long, hard, and difficult struggle.
The Sugar Act put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine.
-1st Continental Congress-
The first Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia. All of the colonies except Georgia sent delegates. These were elected by the people, by the colonial legislatures, or by the committees of correspondence of the respective colonies. The colonies presented there were united in a determination to show a combined authority to Great Britain.
About 100 English colonists arrive along the bank of James River in Virginia. They become the first permanent English settlement in North America.
-French and Indian War begins-
When France’s expansion into the Ohio River valley brought repeated conflict with the claims of the British colonies, a series of battles led to the official British declaration of war, creating the French and Indian War.
The Intolerable Acts was the American Patriots' name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament after the Boston Tea party. They were meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for throwing a large tea shipment into Boston harbor.
The Northwest Ordinance created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British Canada and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south. The upper Mississippi River formed the Territory's western boundary.
-Mayflower Compact was signed-
The Mayflower Compact was an attempt to establish a temporary, legally-binding form of self-government until the Pilgrims could get permission from the Council of New England.
Slavery was introduced to the Colony of Virginia by Dutch traders.
-House of Burgess-
The Virginia House of Burgess was the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America.
-English Bill of Rights-
The English Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England that limits the power of the crown.
-The Great Awakening begins-
The Great Awakening is a sharp increase of interest in religion, and the formation of new religious movements and denominations.The leaders of the Great Awakening, were James Davenport, Jonathan Edwards, Gilbert Tennent and George Whitefield.
When the Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament, tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used.
The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred between a "patriot" mob and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed.
The Tea Act was one of several measures imposed on the American colonists by the heavily indebted British government. The act’s main purpose was not to raise revenue from the colonies but to bail out the floundering East India Company, a key factor in the British economy.
-Boston Tea Party-
Adams and the Sons of Liberty,dressed as Indians, boarded three ships in the Boston harbor and threw 342 chests of tea overboard.
-American Revolution begins-
The American Revolution was the war of independence waged by the American colonies against Britain that influenced political ideas and revolutions around the globe.
-Lexington and Concord-
The Battles of Lexington and Concord kicked off the American Revolutionary War.
-Battle of Bunker Hill-
Early in the Revolutionary War, the British defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill in Massachusetts. Despite their loss, the inexperienced colonial forces inflicted significant casualties against the enemy, and the battle provided them with an important confidence boost.
-Declaration of Independence-
By issuing the Declaration of Independence, adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, the 13 American colonies ended their political connections to Great Britain.
-Battle of Saratoga-
The two Battles of Saratoga were a turning point in the American Revolution.British General John Burgoyne achieved a small, but costly victory over American forces. Though his troop strength had been weakened, Burgoyne again attacked the Americans at Bemis Heights, but this time was defeated and forced to retreat. They surrendered and the American victory convinced the French government to formally recognize the colonist’s cause and enter the war as their ally.
General George Washington, commanded a force of 17,000 French and Continental troops, and began the siege known as the Battle of Yorktown against British General Lord Charles Cornwallis and a contingent of 9,000 British troops at Yorktown, Virginia, in the most important battle of the Revolutionary War.
-Treaty of Paris-
The Treaty of Paris, negotiated between the United States and Great Britain, and recognized American independence. The Continental Congress named a five-member commission to negotiate a treaty–John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and Henry Laurens.
Many farmers suffered from high debt as they tried to start new farms. They called special meetings of the people to protest conditions and agree on a coordinated protest. This led the rebels to close courts by force and to liberate imprisoned debtors from jail. Soon events flared into a full-scale revolt when the resistors came under the leadership of DANIEL SHAYS, a former captain in the Continental Army.
The “Three-fifths Compromise” allowed a state to count three fifths of each Black person in determining political representation in the House.
Pennsylvania encampment occupied by the American army. The winter was harsh, and the army was short on food, clothing, and supplies.The leaders were George Washington and Baron von Steuben. The army set out for New Jersey, where they fought the British.
The Constitutional Convention was called in Philadelphia, and held at Independence Hall. 55 men from throughout the colonies convened for the purpose of strengthening the Articles of Confederation. George Washington was chosen to preside over the convention.
The Land Ordinance was adopted by the Continental Congress in the United States on May 20. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the United States. The goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired after the end of the Revolutionary War.
-Shays' Rebellion is Defeated-
Shay's Rebellion ended with defeat for Daniel Shays and his militia. President George Washington personally led the fledgling US Army to crush the debtors. As a result, many of the revolutionaries were jailed, and some hung.
-US Constitution is Adopted-
Constitution was thus narrowly ratified in Massachusetts, followed by Maryland and South Carolina. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the document, and it was agreed that government under the U.S. Constitution would begin on March 4, 1789.